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D-Alanine Metabolism in E. carotovora

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Erwinia carotovora is a member of the “soft-rot” group of Erwinias and is capable of causing tissue maceration and disease among a broad host range of plants, especially potato tubers held in storage. D-Alanine is a necessary precursor in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan layer in Erwinia carotovora.

The naturally occurring L-Alanine isomer is racemized to its D-form through the action of a class of enzymes called AlRs (Alanine Racemase). This enzyme is ubiquitous among prokaryotes and with very few exceptions are absent in eukaryotes. All known bacteria require D-Alanine, whereas only L-Alanine is used in mammalian protein synthesis. L-Alanine is also a product of several other metabolic pathways like Cyanoamino Acid Metabolism, Selenoamino Acid Metabolism, Alanine and Aspartate, and D-Arginine [...]


1.Structural evidence that alanine racemase from a D-cycloserine-producing microorganism exhibits resistance to its own product.
Noda M, Matoba Y, Kumagai T, Sugiyama M.
J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 29; 279(44):46153-61
2.Molecular dynamics studies of alanine racemase: a structural model for drug design.
Mustata GI, Soares TA, Briggs JM.
Biopolymers 2003 Oct; 70(2):186-200
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