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ERK Signaling

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


The MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) pathway is one of the primordial signaling systems that nature has used in several permutations to accomplish an amazing variety of tasks. It exists in all eukaryotes, and controls such fundamental cellular processes as Proliferation, Differentiation, Survival and Apoptosis. Mammalian MAPK can be divided into four groups based on their structure and function: ERKs (Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinases), p38MAPKs, JNKs (c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinases) and ERK5 (Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase-5) or BMK. Activation of these MAPKs occurs through a cascade of upstream kinases; a MAPKKK (MAPK Kinase Kinase) first phosphorylates a dual-specificity protein kinase MAPKK (MAPK Kinase), which in turn phosphorylates the MAPK. This set-up provides not only for signal amplification, but, maybe even more importantly, for additional [...]


1.Mitogen-activated protein kinases and their role in radiation response.
Munshi A, Ramesh R.
Genes Cancer. 2013 Sep;4(9-10):401-8. doi: 10.1177/1947601913485414. Review.
2.Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in the heart: angels versus demons in a heart-breaking tale.
Rose BA, Force T, Wang Y.
Physiol Rev. 2010 Oct;90(4):1507-46. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00054.2009. Review.
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