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Molecular Biology News
Mon, 16 Oct 2017 12:21:28 EDT
How cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA
A research team has elucidated the mechanism by which human cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA. Notably, the signal network involved differs from that used in the same context in mice.
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 12:51:20 EDT
Worms reveal secrets of aging
Investigators have identified a new molecular pathway that controls lifespan and healthspan in worms and mammals. Researchers have shown that worms with excess levels of certain proteins lived longer and healthier than normal worms. In addition, mice with excess levels of these proteins demonstrated a delay in blood vessel dysfunction associated with aging. The study has major implications for our understanding of aging and age-associated disorders.
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:19:53 EDT
Cell biology: Proteins may prevent dysfunction, disease by relaxing, study shows
A team of researchers used simulations and X-rays to conclude that disordered proteins remain unfolded and expanded as they float loose in the cytoplasm of a cell. The answer affects how we envision the movement of a protein through its life--essential for understanding how proteins fold, what goes wrong during disorders and disease and how to model their behavior.
Fri, 13 Oct 2017 09:10:08 EDT
How E. coli bacteria adapt under stress
Researchers have developed a genome-scale model that can accurately predict how E. coli bacteria respond to temperature changes and genetic mutations. The work sheds light on how cells adapt under environmental stress and has applications in precision medicine, where adaptive cell modeling could provide patient-specific treatments for bacterial infections.
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 15:18:00 EDT
3D packaging of DNA regulates cell identity
The ability of a stem cell to differentiate into cardiac muscle (and by extension other cell types) depends on what portions of the genome are available for activation, which is controlled by the location of DNA in a cell's nucleus, new research suggests.
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 14:33:59 EDT
Cell biology: Cell contacts in embryonic development determine cellular fate
The average human consists of about 37.2 trillion cells. But not all cells are created equal: while muscle cells contain the molecular machinery to contract and relax your muscles, some neurons send meter-long axons from the spinal cord to the tip of your toes, and red blood cells bind oxygen and transport it around the body. How does a cell 'know' which function to fulfill?
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 12:28:27 EDT
How switches work in bacteria
Many bacteria have molecular control elements, via which they can switch on and off genes. These riboswitches also open up new options in the development of antibiotics or for the detection and decomposition of environmental toxins. Researchers have now used light optical microscopy of single molecules to fundamentally study the way riboswitches work.
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 11:14:48 EDT
Universality and specificity in protein motions
Although proteins have very different function functions, or specialties, in living cells, they share the general characteristics -- the same universality -- in their motions, say scientists. Their motion is much like mountain landslides or wildfires, they report.
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 11:14:37 EDT
Novel mechanism protects mitochondrial DNA
Researchers have discovered a novel mechanism safeguarding mitochondrial DNA. A central part of the protective mechanism is an unusual enzyme, PrimPol, which can re-initiate mitochondrial DNA replication after damage.
Thu, 12 Oct 2017 10:36:03 EDT
Pioneering discovery of an odor-detecting receptor enhancer
Scientists have identified a regulatory sequence that turns gene expression on, or simply an enhancer, for odor-detecting receptors, which form one of the largest gene clusters in the mouse genome. This was done using a combination of research methods, including the CRISPR-Cas9 system, which is a genome editing technique, the Bacillus subtilis synthetic genome vector system, which is a cloning system for large DNA fragments, and bioinformatics.
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