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Pathways

Metabolic Pathways

Displaying 1 to 12 (of 291 pathways)

Probiotics are living microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts; however, dead bacteria and their components also exhibit probiotic properties. Bifidobacterium and strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most widely used bacteria that exhibit probiotic properties and are included in many functional foods and dietary supplements (Ref.1&2).During intestinal bacterial infection, there is colonization of the gut epithelium by the pathogen. The mucus produced by goblet cells accounts as one of the first lines of defense against pathogenic bacteria colonization and the intestinal cells produce antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins and defensins) in order to contain the infection. Cathelicidins are small, cationic,[..]

CHREBP (Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein) is the major transcription factor conferring glucose-induced gene expression in pancreatic islets, liver and adipose tissue. To date, only two natural isoforms, CHREBPα and CHREBPβ, have been identified. CHREBP-β was identified in adipose tissue and found to be also expressed in islets and involved in glucose-induced beta cell proliferation. In adult pancreatic β cells, CHREBP activity is regulated by its cytosolic/nuclear localization (Ref.1&2).Chronic hyperglycemia, the hallmark of type 1 and T2D, can cause damage to numerous cell types, including pancreatic β cells. Although under physiological conditions an increase in glucose metabolism stimulates insulin secretion,[..]

Nitrosomonas europaea  is a gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph that can derive all its energy and reductant for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Nitrosomonas europaea participates in the biogeochemical N cycle in the process of nitrification. Its genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 2,812,094 bp. The cell's demand for carbon has to be met almost entirely by the fixation of carbon dioxide. Additional mineral salts complete the cell's nutritional needs. Although this bacterium can incorporate small amounts of organic compounds into cellular biomass, there is an obligate requirement for oxidation of ammonia and assimilation of inorganic nutrients to support growth. Besides, Amino acids also play an important role in supporting[..]

Prochlorococcus is a unicellular cyanobacterium that dominates the temperate and tropical oceans. It lacks phycobilisomes that are characteristic of cyanobacteria, and contains chlorophyll b as its major accessory pigment. This enables it to absorb blue light efficiently at the low-light intensities and blue wavelengths characteristic of the deep euphotic zone. It contributes 30-80% of the total photosynthesis in the oligotrophic oceans, and thus plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the Earth's climate. Prochlorococcus marinus MED4 is a member of Prochlorophytes. The genome of Prochlorococcus marinus MED4, a high-light-adapted strain, is 1,657,990 base pairs (bp). This is the smallest of any oxygenic phototroph—significantly smaller than that of[..]

The marine unicellular Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the smallest-known oxygen-evolving autotroph. Prochlorococcus marinus, the dominant photosynthetic organism in the ocean, is found in two main ecological forms: high-light-adapted genotypes in the upper part of the water column and low-light-adapted genotypes at the bottom of the illuminated layer. P. marinus SS120, the complete genome sequence reported here, is an extremely low-light-adapted form. The genome of P. marinus SS120 is composed of a single circular chromosome of 1,751,080 bp with an average G+C content of 36.4%. It contains 1,884 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 825 bp, a single rRNA operon, and 40 tRNA genes. It lacks many genes that are involved in photosynthesis, DNA repair,[..]

The marine unicellular Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the smallest-known oxygen-evolving autotroph. It numerically dominates the phytoplankton in the tropical and subtropical oceans, and is responsible for a significant fraction of global photosynthesis. Prochlorococcus marinus lacks phycobilisomes that are characteristic of Cyanobacteria, and contains Chlorophyll b as its major accessory pigment. This enables it to absorb blue light efficiently at the low-light intensities and blue wavelengths characteristic of the deep euphotic zone. It contributes 30-80% of the total photosynthesis in the oligotrophic oceans, and thus plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the Earth's climate. Prochlorococcus marinus MIT9313 is a member of Prochlorophytes The[..]

The marine unicellular Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the smallest-known oxygen-evolving autotroph. Prochlorococcus marinus, the dominant photosynthetic organism in the ocean, is found in two main ecological forms: high-light-adapted genotypes in the upper part of the water column and low-light-adapted genotypes at the bottom of the illuminated layer. P. marinus SS120, the complete genome sequence reported here, is an extremely low-light-adapted form. The genome of P. marinus SS120 is composed of a single circular chromosome of 1,751,080 bp with an average G+C content of 36.4%. It contains 1,884 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 825 bp, a single rRNA operon, and 40 tRNA genes. It lacks many genes that are involved in photosynthesis, DNA repair,[..]

The marine unicellular cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the smallest-known oxygen-evolving autotroph. It numerically dominates the phytoplankton in the tropical and subtropical oceans, and is responsible for a significant fraction of global photosynthesis. Prochlorococcus marinus lacks phycobilisomes that are characteristic of cyanobacteria, and contains chlorophyll b as its major accessory pigment. This enables it to absorb blue light efficiently at the low-light intensities and blue wavelengths characteristic of the deep euphotic zone. It contributes 30-80% of the total photosynthesis in the oligotrophic oceans, and thus plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the Earth's climate. Prochlorococcus marinus MIT9313 is a member of Prochlorophytes The[..]

Prochlorococcus is a unicellular cyanobacterium that dominates the temperate and tropical oceans. It lacks phycobilisomes that are characteristic of cyanobacteria, and contains chlorophyll b as its major accessory pigment. This enables it to absorb blue light efficiently at the low-light intensities and blue wavelengths characteristic of the deep euphotic zone. It contributes 30-80% of the total photosynthesis in the oligotrophic oceans, and thus plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the Earth's climate. Prochlorococcus marinus MED4 is a member of Prochlorophytes. The genome of Prochlorococcus MED4, a high-light-adapted strain, is 1,657,990 base pairs (bp). This is the smallest of any oxygenic phototroph—significantly smaller than that of the[..]

Nitrosomonas europaea is a gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph that can derive all its energy and reductant for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Nitrosomonas europaea participates in the biogeochemical N cycle in the process of nitrification. It lives in several places such as soil, sewage, freshwater, the walls of buildings and on the surface of monuments especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds. This microbe prefers an optimum pH of 6.0-9.0, fairly neutral conditions, has an aerobic metabolism and prefers a temperature range of 20-30 degrees centigrade. Most are motile with flagella located in the Polar Regions although some species are nonmotile. The cell's demand for carbon has to be met almost[..]

A. tumefaciens (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) is a species of bacteria that causes tumors (commonly known as ‘Galls’ or ‘Crown Galls’) in dicots. This Gram-negative bacterium form Crown Gall by inserting a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for ‘Transfer DNA’) into the plant cell, which is incorporated at a semi-random location into the plant genome. The T-DNA contains genes encoding enzymes that cause the plant to create specialized sugars which the bacteria metabolize to form Opines. Agrobacterium is an Alpha-Proteobacterium of the family Rhizobiaceae and are parasitic to the plant. A. tumefaciens C58 is the first fully sequenced pathovar isolated from a Cherry tree Crown Gall. The genome of A. tumefaciens C58 consists of a circular chromosome, two[..]

A. tumefaciens (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) is a plant pathogen with the unique ability to transfer a defined segment of DNA to eukaryotes, where it integrates into the eukaryotic genome. It is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes tumors commonly known as ‘Galls’ or ‘Crown Galls’ in dicots. Crown Gall is formed by inserting a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for ‘Transfer DNA’) into the plant cell, which is incorporated at a semi-random location into the plant genome. The T-DNA contains genes encoding enzymes that cause the plant to create specialized sugars which the bacteria metabolize to form Opines. Agrobacterium is an Alpha-Proteobacterium of the family Rhizobiaceae and are parasitic to the plant. A. tumefaciens C58 is the first fully[..]

Displaying 1 to 12 (of 291 pathways)
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