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Pathways

Featured Pathways

Displaying 1 to 12 (of 821 pathways)

Featured Pathways

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogenic bacterium in the genus Mycobacterium. It is often abbreviated M. paratuberculosis and is a part of the Mycobacterium avium complex in the genus Mycobacterium and family Mycobacteriaceae. The M. avium complex contains two clearly defined species M. avium and M intracellulare. M. paratuberculosis is a facultative[..]

Soil-inhabiting species of Streptomyces are Gram-positive filamentous bacteria having a complex life cycle that begins with spore germination to form branched multinucleoid vegetative hyphae. The subsequent differentiation process results in formation of erect sporogenic aerial hyphae, followed by chains of unigenomic spores1. During the initiation of morphological differentiation, most[..]

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common viruses to infecting both children and adults, especially the elderly. RSV infection causes an upper respiratory infection in adults whereas in young children RSV causes bronchiolitis with small airway obstruction. It may progress to pneumonia, respiratory failure, apnea, and death (Ref.1).

RSV is a single-stranded,[..]

Humans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Cellular innate immune system represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens. To counter virus infection, the immune system produces antiviral cytokines. Interferon (IFN) is the most powerful antiviral cytokine, and it induces IFN-stimulated genes that mediate antiviral[..]

Bone marrow cells called Megakaryocytes contain stem cells that give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Platelets are tiny blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. Platelets functions as reporters, messengers and active transporters surveying the vasculature.  They are concentrated in a fluid layer adjacent to the vessel wall and can immediately[..]

Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, and its control only slowly hinders the progression of the disease’s complications, without stopping them. Hyperglycemia triggers several metabolic signaling pathways that leads to inflammation, cytokines secretion, cell death, and consequently to diabetic complications. These are represented by inflammation in the vessels or in the nerves,[..]

Glucose is the most common source of cellular energy and a substrate for many biochemical processes. It is typically produced from ingested dietary carbohydrates but may also be created within the body using gluconeogenesis. Once inside the cell, glucose enters a cycle of changes to release energy in the form of ATP. Normal cells with access to oxygen utilize glycolysis to metabolize glucose[..]

Drug addiction is considered as a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder induced by repeated pharmacological manipulation of the so-called mesolimbic reward circuitry by drugs of abuse. It can be viewed as maladaptive neural plasticity that occurs in vulnerable individuals in response to repeated exposure to drugs. Thus, addictive drugs change brain properties that normally permit us to[..]

Drug addiction is considered as a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder induced by repeated pharmacological manipulation of mesolimbic reward circuitry during drugs of abuse. It is observe as maladaptive neural plasticity that occurs in vulnerable individuals in response to repeated exposure to drugs. Thus, addictive drugs change brain properties that normally permit us to adapt to[..]

GBS (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) is often known as post infectious, immune-mediated nerve injury. This syndrome results in inflammatory demyelination, characterized by acute weakness of the extremities and areflexia. The pathological features of GBS include inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage in the PNS (Peripheral Nervous[..]

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by the beta coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was believed to be restricted to the respiratory system since its outbreak in January 2020. Later it was found that it also involves multiple other organs including the central and peripheral nervous system. Neurological problems like ischemic, hemorrhagic strokes, venous sinus thrombosis,[..]

Interleukin18 (IL18) is a pro-inflammatory IL-1 family cytokine that activates hematopoietic cell types involved in Th1 and Th2 responses. IL18 plays an essential role in the host defense against various infectious microorganisms. It also enhances the induction of IFN-gamma, nitric oxide (NO), and ROS in phagocytes. Expressed by both immune and non-immune cells like macrophages, keratinocytes,[..]

Displaying 1 to 12 (of 821 pathways)
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