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Featured Pathways

Displaying 1 to 12 (of 825 pathways)

Featured Pathways

Cerebral ischemia (a type of Stroke) is a result of insufficient blood flow to the brain. It is a cerebrovascular disease that arises from arterial defects in the brain. It is the most common life-threatening neurological disease. It leads to limited supply of oxygen and other nutrients to meet metabolic demands. There are two types of cerebral ischemia: focal and[..]

The ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum) is a crucial organelle involved in many functions. In the cell protein misfolding can results from genetic mutations affecting normal protein folding or malfunction of the cytosolic ER resident protein folding machinery. Many diseases result from misfolded protein that accumulates within the ER, where they generate a stressful condition referred to as ER stress.[..]

Human monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV) affecting rodents and primates mostly in western and central Africa that incidentally causes disease in humans similar to smallpox, although with notably lower mortality. The[..]

Monkeypox virus also designated as MPV, MPXV, or hMPXV is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus that belongs to the family Poxviridae, and causes disease in humans similar to smallpox, although with notably lower mortality. This virus is endemic to western and central Africa, but the 2022 outbreak is mostly being noted in European countries and the Western Hemisphere associated with the exotic pet trade[..]

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogenic bacterium in the genus Mycobacterium. It is often abbreviated M. paratuberculosis and is a part of the Mycobacterium avium complex in the genus Mycobacterium and family Mycobacteriaceae. The M. avium complex contains two clearly defined species M. avium and M intracellulare. M. paratuberculosis is a facultative[..]

Soil-inhabiting species of Streptomyces are Gram-positive filamentous bacteria having a complex life cycle that begins with spore germination to form branched multinucleoid vegetative hyphae. The subsequent differentiation process results in formation of erect sporogenic aerial hyphae, followed by chains of unigenomic spores1. During the initiation of morphological differentiation, most[..]

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common viruses to infecting both children and adults, especially the elderly. RSV infection causes an upper respiratory infection in adults whereas in young children RSV causes bronchiolitis with small airway obstruction. It may progress to pneumonia, respiratory failure, apnea, and death (Ref.1).

RSV is a single-stranded,[..]

Humans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Cellular innate immune system represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens. To counter virus infection, the immune system produces antiviral cytokines. Interferon (IFN) is the most powerful antiviral cytokine, and it induces IFN-stimulated genes that mediate antiviral[..]

Bone marrow cells called Megakaryocytes contain stem cells that give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Platelets are tiny blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. Platelets functions as reporters, messengers and active transporters surveying the vasculature.  They are concentrated in a fluid layer adjacent to the vessel wall and can immediately[..]

Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, and its control only slowly hinders the progression of the disease’s complications, without stopping them. Hyperglycemia triggers several metabolic signaling pathways that leads to inflammation, cytokines secretion, cell death, and consequently to diabetic complications. These are represented by inflammation in the vessels or in the nerves,[..]

Glucose is the most common source of cellular energy and a substrate for many biochemical processes. It is typically produced from ingested dietary carbohydrates but may also be created within the body using gluconeogenesis. Once inside the cell, glucose enters a cycle of changes to release energy in the form of ATP. Normal cells with access to oxygen utilize glycolysis to metabolize glucose[..]

Drug addiction is considered as a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder induced by repeated pharmacological manipulation of the so-called mesolimbic reward circuitry by drugs of abuse. It can be viewed as maladaptive neural plasticity that occurs in vulnerable individuals in response to repeated exposure to drugs. Thus, addictive drugs change brain properties that normally permit us to[..]

Displaying 1 to 12 (of 825 pathways)


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