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Featured Pathways

Displaying 73 to 84 (of 825 pathways)

Featured Pathways

HBV(Hepatitis B virus) is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae. It is a hepatotropic non-cytopathic DNA virus and is a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. As HBV itself is currently viewed as a non-cytopathic virus, the liver pathology associated with hepatitis B is mainly thought to be due to immune responses directed against HBV antigens. The outcome of HBV infection is[..]

HBV (Hepatitis-B Virus) belongs to a family of closely related DNA viruses called the Hepadnaviruses. Included in this family are the WHV (Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus), the DHBV (Duck Hepatitis-B Virus) and several other avian and mammalian variants. Hepadnaviruses have a strong preference for infecting liver cells, but small amounts of hepadnaviral DNA can be found in kidney, pancreas, and[..]

A cell must selectively translocate molecules across its plasma membrane to maintain the chemical composition of its cytoplasm distinct from that of the surrounding milieu. The most intriguing and, arguably, the most important membrane proteins for this purpose are the ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters. These proteins, found in all species, use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate[..]

ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are a large superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in the cellular export or import of a wide variety of different substances, including ions, lipids, cyclic nucleotides, peptides, and proteins. ABC transporters are systemically classified into eight subfamilies by sequence similarity, i.e., ABCA (ABC1), ABCB (MDR/TAP), ABCC (MRP/CFTR),[..]

Steroid hormones are lipophilic, low-molecular weight compounds derived from Cholesterol that play important physiological roles. The steroid hormones are synthesized mainly by Endocrine Glands such as the the Adrenal Cortex and the Gonads (Ovary and Testes), and are then released into the blood circulation. There are five major classes of steroid hormones. They are the (i) Glucocorticoids[..]

AMLs (Acute Myeloid Leukemias) are characterized with chromosomal translocations resulting in the formation of fusion proteins. Understanding PML (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Inducer) function has become an area of intense research because of its involvement in the pathogenesis of APL (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia), a distinct subtype of Myeloid Leukemia. In the[..]

Vitamin A and its analogs, collectively termed retinoids, have a profound effect on cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and morphogenesis. Retinol, the lipid-soluble vitamin A, is an absolute requirement for normal growth, vision and differentiation of epithelial tissues in mammals. Retinol must be obtained directly through dietary intake, but may also be derived in its provitamin A forms[..]

Retinoic Acid, a lipophilic molecule and a metabolite of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), affects gene transcription and modulates a wide variety of biological processes like Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, including Apoptosis. Retinoic Acid mediated gene transcription depends on the rate of transport of Retinoic Acid to target cells and the timing of exposure of Retinoic Acid to RARs[..]

The ESRs (Estrogen Receptors) are ligand-dependent transcription factors and are important Nuclear Hormone Receptors that act as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and malignant transformation. Transcriptional activation by ESRs is accomplished through specific and general cofactor complexes that assemble with the receptor at target promoters to regulate transcription. The chief ligand[..]

A. tumefaciens (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) is a species of bacteria that causes tumors (commonly known as ‘Galls’ or ‘Crown Galls’) in dicots. This Gram-negative bacterium form Crown Gall by inserting a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for ‘Transfer DNA’) into the plant cell, which is incorporated at a semi-random location into the[..]

A. tumefaciens (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) is a plant pathogen with the unique ability to transfer a defined segment of DNA to eukaryotes, where it integrates into the eukaryotic genome. It is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes tumors commonly known as ‘Galls’ or ‘Crown Galls’ in dicots. Crown Gall is formed by inserting a small segment of DNA[..]

Members of the bacterial genus Bdellovibrio are obligately predacious upon other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio are ubiquitous in nature and their prey includes plant, animal, and human pathogens. Despite the small dimensions of Bdellovibrio cells, its genome consists of 3,782,950 base pairs on a single circular chromosome. B. bacteriovorus[..]

Displaying 73 to 84 (of 825 pathways)


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