Isoleucine is essential amino acid, only synthesized in plants and bacteria, and required in the diet by animals. In proteins, the hydrophobic Isoleucine side-chain tends to reside with other hydrophobic residues in the interior of globular proteins or in transmembrane domains. Isoleucine biosynthesis begins with the common metabolic intermediate Pyruvate, the endpoint of glycolysis. The first step in Isoleucine biosynthesis requires TPP (Thiamine Pyrophosphate) to form a carbanion intermediate. This intermediate undergoes ...
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