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Pathways

Featured Pathways

Displaying 13 to 24 (of 813 pathways)

Featured Pathways

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes. This is a type of slow-growing leukaemia that affects developing B-lymphocytes. CLL is a malignancy of mature CD5+ B-cells that is characterized by apoptosis resistance and dysfunctional immune system. Within a complex cellular network in bone marrow and[..]

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes. This is a prototypic malignancy that not only depends on intrinsic genetic defects, but also depends on the interactions with cells present in microenvironment such as T cells, monocyte-derived cells (MDC), and stromal cells (such as endothelial cells,[..]

The immune response is initiated by innate immunity following exposure to foreign substances or tissue injury. Innate immunity exerts protective roles in host homeostasis in part by priming adaptive immune responses against persisting insults and inducing inflammation. However, the unbalanced immune response leads to severe inflammation and uncontrolled tissue damage and disease. Sensing of[..]

Probiotics are living microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts; however, dead bacteria and their components also exhibit probiotic properties. Bifidobacterium and strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most widely used bacteria that exhibit probiotic properties and are included in many functional foods and dietary supplements[..]

Endocannabinoids are endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors that bind as the principal biologically active component of Cannabis sativa, D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC), and also comprise amides, esters and ethers of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The[..]

CHREBP (Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein) is the major transcription factor conferring glucose-induced gene expression in pancreatic islets, liver and adipose tissue. To date, only two natural isoforms, CHREBPα and CHREBPβ, have been identified. CHREBP-β was identified in adipose tissue and found to be also expressed in islets and involved in[..]

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that is rapidly evolving and spreading at a different rate in different countries. SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, a kind of viral pneumonia with an unusual outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, belongs to the beta-coronavirus group of the Coronaviridae family, order Nidovirale,[..]

Ethanol is a psychoactive substance with rewarding and sedative-hypnotic properties that stem largely from its acute effects on specific signaling proteins that lead to changes in localization and post-translational modifications, gene expression and neuronal excitability. Neurons adapt to repeated ethanol exposure through homeostatic changes in cellular signaling pathways that serve to[..]

GVHD (Graft-Versus-Host Disease) is the main complication after allogeneic SCT (Stem Cell Transplantation) and induced by donor T cells in the graft. As in physiological T cell responses, alloreactive T cells depend on their activation by APCs (Antigen Presenting Cells). Potential APCs are B cells, monocytes/macrophages,and mainly dendritic cells (DC), the most efficient cells in antigen[..]

T-cell activation and effector function is mediated by the formation of a long-lasting interaction established between T-cells and APCs (Antigen-Presenting Cells) called Immunological synapse (IS). During T-cell activation, different signaling molecules as well as the cytoskeleton and the endosomal compartment are polarized to the IS. Compartmentalization of interactions at the interface of[..]

Cushing’s syndrome (CS) has been described for about a century and represents a classical syndrome in endocrinology. Recent years have been marked by progress in elucidating the etiology and the pathogenesis of the disease. Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is classically divided into corticotrophin (ACTH)-dependent and ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. ACTH-dependent subtype is[..]

SLE (Systemic lupus erythematosis) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies and the deposition of immune complexes, affecting a wide range of organs. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to “self” leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the[..]

Displaying 13 to 24 (of 813 pathways)
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