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Featured Pathways

Displaying 61 to 72 (of 813 pathways)

Featured Pathways

ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are a large superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in the cellular export or import of a wide variety of different substances, including ions, lipids, cyclic nucleotides, peptides, and proteins. ABC transporters are systemically classified into eight subfamilies by sequence similarity, i.e., ABCA (ABC1), ABCB (MDR/TAP), ABCC (MRP/CFTR),[..]

Steroid hormones are lipophilic, low-molecular weight compounds derived from Cholesterol that play important physiological roles. The steroid hormones are synthesized mainly by Endocrine Glands such as the the Adrenal Cortex and the Gonads (Ovary and Testes), and are then released into the blood circulation. There are five major classes of steroid hormones. They are the (i) Glucocorticoids[..]

AMLs (Acute Myeloid Leukemias) are characterized with chromosomal translocations resulting in the formation of fusion proteins. Understanding PML (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Inducer) function has become an area of intense research because of its involvement in the pathogenesis of APL (Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia), a distinct subtype of Myeloid Leukemia. In[..]

Vitamin A and its analogs, collectively termed retinoids, have a profound effect on cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and morphogenesis. Retinol, the lipid-soluble vitamin A, is an absolute requirement for normal growth, vision and differentiation of epithelial tissues in mammals. Retinol must be obtained directly through dietary intake, but may also be derived in its provitamin A forms[..]

Retinoic Acid, a lipophilic molecule and a metabolite of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), affects gene transcription and modulates a wide variety of biological processes like Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, including Apoptosis. Retinoic Acid mediated gene transcription depends on the rate of transport of Retinoic Acid to target cells and the timing of exposure of Retinoic Acid to RARs[..]

The ESRs (Estrogen Receptors) are ligand-dependent transcription factors and are important Nuclear Hormone Receptors that act as regulators of cell growth, differentiation and malignant transformation. Transcriptional activation by ESRs is accomplished through specific and general cofactor complexes that assemble with the receptor at target promoters to regulate transcription. The chief ligand[..]

A. tumefaciens (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) is a species of bacteria that causes tumors (commonly known as ‘Galls’ or ‘Crown Galls’) in dicots. This Gram-negative bacterium form Crown Gall by inserting a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for ‘Transfer DNA’) into the plant cell, which is incorporated at a semi-random location into the plant genome. The T-DNA[..]

A. tumefaciens (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) is a plant pathogen with the unique ability to transfer a defined segment of DNA to eukaryotes, where it integrates into the eukaryotic genome. It is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes tumors commonly known as ‘Galls’ or ‘Crown Galls’ in dicots. Crown Gall is formed by inserting a small segment of DNA (known as the T-DNA, for[..]

Members of the bacterial genus Bdellovibrio are obligately predacious upon other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio are ubiquitous in nature and their prey includes plant, animal, and human pathogens. Despite the small dimensions of Bdellovibrio cells, its genome consists of 3,782,950 base pairs on a single circular chromosome. B. bacteriovorus[..]

B. longum (Bifidobacterium longum) is among the first colonizers of the sterile digestive tract of newborns and predominate in breast-fed infants. Bifidobacteria including B. longum are Gram-positive, anaerobic and branched rod-shaped bacteria that naturally colonize in the human gastrointestinal tract and vagina. These are beneficial bacteria that[..]

The Cyanidiophyceae, including C. merolae (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), are a basal clade within the red lineage plastids. The red algae are thought to be one of the basal eukaryotic lineages, and may possess ancestral features of eukaryotic phototrophs. C. merolae is the first species of algae to be sequenced; the organism consists of a single cell that has three[..]

The genome of C. jejuni RM1221 (Campylobacter jejuni RM1221) is a single circular chromosome, 1,777,831 bp in length, with an average G+C content of 30.31 percent. There are a total of 1,884 predicted coding regions in the genome with an average ORF (Open Reading Frame) length of 885 bp. The genomic structure of C. jejuni RM1221 is syntenic with the genome of C.[..]

Displaying 61 to 72 (of 813 pathways)


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