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14-3-3 and Cell Cycle Regulation
Co-ordinated progression through the cell cycle is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity. 14-3-3 proteins play particularly important roles in coordinating progression of cells through the cell cycle, regulating their response to DNA damage, and influencing life-death decisions following internal injury or external cytokine-mediated cues. 14-3-3 proteins function at [...]
14-3-3 and Regulation of BAD Activity
14-3-3 is a phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-binding protein that is being implicated in a wide range of cellular phenomena. 14-3-3 family members are found in all eukaryotes – from plants to mammals – and more than 100 binding partners have been identified to date. They regulate their activities by a number of different [...]
14-3-3 in Apoptosis
14-3-3 proteins are abundantly expressed adaptor proteins that interact with a vast number of binding partners to regulate their cellular localization and function. They regulate substrate function in a number of ways including protection from dephosphorylation, regulation of enzyme activity, formation of ternary complexes and sequestration. They are key regulators of major cellular processes such as
14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
The 14-3-3 family of proteins consists of molecular adaptors that recognize phosphorylated proteins (e.g. kinases, transcription factors and receptors). They are able to coordinate almost limitless combinations of protein complexes, which accounts for their functional diversity (Ref.1). This plethora of interacting proteins allows 14-3-3 to play important roles in a [...]
4-1BB Pathway
4-1BB is an inducible T cell surface receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor super family. It presents on the surface of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, monocytes and B lymphocytes. 4-1BB signaling is activated by
ABA Signaling in Arabidopsis Stomatal Guard Cells
Plants have pores, Stomata, on their leaf surfaces that allow CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) in for photosynthesis and through which water evaporates. The specific cells that border and define these pores are Guard Cells. Guard Cells literally guard the size of the pore by alternately swelling, which opens the pore, or [...]
ABC Transporters in Cholestatic Hepatocytes
A cell must selectively translocate molecules across its plasma membrane to maintain the chemical composition of its cytoplasm distinct from that of the surrounding milieu. The most intriguing and, arguably, the most important membrane proteins for this purpose are the ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters. These proteins, found in all species, [...]
Actin Nucleation and Branching
The actin family is a diverse and evolutionarily ancient group of proteins that provide the supportive framework to the three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic cells. It provides the forces that enable the cell to adopt a variety of shapes and to undertake directed movements. Certain cell types, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, [...]
Actin Nucleation by ARP-WASP Complex
Actin Nucleation By ARP-WASP Complex For many cell types, the ability to move across a solid surface is fundamental to their biological function. Certain aspects of cell locomotion, such as the protrusion of the plasma membrane in lamellipodia and filopodia, are driven by the polymerization of actin cytoskeleton. The actin [...]
Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
In response to a variety of extracellular stimuli, actin filament assembly at the leading edge of motile cells causes protrusion during cell crawling and chemotaxis, nerve growth and cell spreading. The actin filament network immediately under the plasma membrane in regions of rapid cellular protrusion consists of short, branched filaments [...]
Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
cAMP (Cyclic 3', 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate)-dependent Protein Kinase, commonly known as PKA (Protein Kinase-A), is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, metabolism, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Known modulators of PKA activity include factors that either activate or inhibit AC [...]
Activation of NF-KappaB by PKR
PKR (Protein Kinase-R) is a 68-kDa serine–threonine kinase that appears to play a primary role in mediating the antiviral activities of infected cells. PKR mediates apoptosis induced by many different stimuli, such as LPS (Lipopolysaccharides), TNF-Alpha (Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha), viral infection, or serum starvation. Viral infection leads to the increased [...]
Activation of PKA through GPCR
PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, metabolism, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Known modulators of PKA activity include factors that either activate or inhibit AC (Adenylate Cyclase), resulting in an increase or decrease in cAMP [...]
Activation of PKC through GPCR
PKC (Protein Kinase-C) is a cyclic nucleotide-independent enzyme that phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. PKC plays a pivotal role in mediating cellular responses to extracellular stimuli involved in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and exocytotic release in a number of non-neuronal systems such as Islet cells, Chromaffin cells [...]
Agranulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis
Cell adhesion and migration is the fundamental feature of multicellular organisms during defense mechanisms, where leukocytes play the central role. They bind bacteria, parasites, viruses, tumor cells etc. Furthermore, their interactions with the endothelium are of special importance. The migration of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) from the vascular [...]
Agrin Interactions at Neuromuscular Junction
The development of the NMJ (Neuromuscular Junction) is triggered by agrin, a signaling factor that is deposited by the nerve terminal at the site of contact with the muscle cell. Motor neuron-derived agrin induces many aspects of synaptic differentiation and is required for the postsynaptic localization of many synapse-specific basal [...]
AHR Pathway
AHR is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, binding and becoming activated by sterically planar ligands approximately three benzene rings in size. It is maximally expressed in interface tissues including the liver, lungs, skin and gastrointestinal tract [Ref.1]. It is recognized as the culprit for most toxic responses observed after exposure
AIF Pathway
AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor), is a phylogenetically old flavoprotein which is confined to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in healthy cells but upon lethal signaling, it translocates, via the cytosol, to the nucleus where it binds to DNA and provokes Caspase-independent chromatin condensation [Ref.1]. Proteolysis of the membrane tether in mature AIF can be mediated by local or cytoplasmic proteases
Airway Inflammation in Asthma
sthma is a complex, chronic inflammatory lung disease which is characterized by persistent airway inflammation and airway wall remodeling, that includes the structural changes in the airway wall, epithelial cell shedding, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the ASM (airway smooth muscle) bundles, basement membrane thickening and increased vascular density. Airway wall remodeling starts early in the pathogenesis of asthma [Ref.1]. It originates from
Airway Pathology in COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem that is becoming preva¬lent, particularly in developing countries [Ref.1]. It is one of the most common diseases in the world, with a lifetime risk estimated to be as high as 25%, and now equally affects both men and women [...]
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