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Blood Coagulation Cascade

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Coagulation is a dynamic process which involves the regulated sequence of proteolytic activation of a series of zymogens to achieve appropriate and timely haemostasis in an injured vessel, in an environment that overwhelmingly favours an anticoagulant state [Ref.1 & 2]. There are two main mechanisms for triggering the blood clotting, termed as the contact pathway/intrinsic pathway and the tissue factor pathway/extrinsic pathway [Ref.3].

The contact pathway of coagulation is initiated by activation of factor XII (fXII) in a process that also involves high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) and plasma prekallikrein (PK). Contact of blood with an artificial surface leads to a change in the conformation of fXII, resulting in the generation of small amounts of active factor XII (fXIIa) .This enzyme then activates [...]


1.Overview of the coagulation system.
Palta S, Saroa R, Palta A.
Indian J Anaesth. 2014 Sep; 58(5):515-23. doi: 10.4103/0019-5049.144643. Review.
2.Review article: Coagulation cascade and therapeutics update: relevance to nephrology. Part 1: Overview of coagulation, thrombophilias and history of anticoagulants.
Adams RL, Bird RJ.
Nephrology (Carlton). 2009 Aug; 14(5):462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2009.01128.x. Review.
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