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CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell

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CD28 (Antigen CD28) is characterized as a co-receptor for the TCR (T-Cell Receptor)/CD3 (CD3 Antigen) complex and is responsible for providing the co-stimulatory signal required for T-cell activation. CD28 also act as a receptor independent of the TCR and can initiate signaling events without concomitant TCR ligation. Priming of naive T-cells in lymphoid organs depends on the interaction between CD28, which is constitutively expressed in T-cells, and both CD80 (CD80 Antigen) and CD86 (CD86 Antigen) and induces subsequent IL-2 (Interleukin-2) production and clonal expansion for effective immune response. CD28 is a major positive co-stimulatory molecule required for T-cell activation and functional differentiation, and that CTLA4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-4) upon ligation with CD80 and CD86 provides a negative co-stimulatory signal for [...]


1.CD28 expression is required after T cell priming for helper T cell responses and protective immunity to infection.
Linterman MA, Denton AE, Divekar DP, Zvetkova I, Kane L, Ferreira C, Veldhoen M, Clare S, Dougan G, Espéli M, Smith KG.
Elife. 2014 Oct 27; 3. doi: 10.7554/eLife.03180.
2.CTLA-4 controls follicular helper Tcell differentiation by regulating the strength of CD28 engagement.
Wang CJ, Heuts F, Ovcinnikovs V, Wardzinski L, Bowers C, Schmidt EM, Kogimtzis A, Kenefeck R, Sansom DM, Walker LS.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 13; 112(2):524-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1414576112. Epub 2014 Dec 29.
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