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D-Alanine Metabolism in N. europaea

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Nitrosomonas europaea is a Gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph, which derives all its energy and reductant for growth from the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. The bacterium participates in the biogeochemical Nitrogen cycle in the process of nitrification (Ref.1). A key step in peptidoglycan layer assembly and deposition in the cell wall of N. europaea is the subsequent enzymic cross-linking of one peptidoglycan strand to an adjacent one in cell wall growth. D-Alanine is a central molecule in this peptidoglycan assembly and cross-linking. The naturally occurring L-Alanine isomer is racemized to its D-form through the action of AlRs (Alanine Racemase). L-Alanine is also a product of several other metabolic pathways like Cyanoamino Acid Metabolism, Selenoamino Acid Metabolism, Alanine and Aspartate, and [...]


1.Nitrosomonas europaea expresses a nitric oxide reductase during nitrification.
Beaumont HJ, van Schooten B, Lens SI, Westerhoff HV, van Spanning RJ.
J Bacteriol. 2004 Jul; 186(13):4417-21.
2.Characterization of the alanine racemases from two mycobacteria.
Strych U, Penland RL, Jimenez M, Krause KL, Benedik MJ.
FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 Mar 15;196(2):93-8
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