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Estrogen-mediated S-Phase Entry

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


Estrogens are a class of steroid hormones that play a central role in reproduction, and are regarded as the powerful female hormones that make a girl develop into a woman capable of reproduction. Estrogenic steroids, that include: E1 (Estrone), E2 (Estradiol/17-beta Estradiol) and E3 (Estriol), regulate cellular functions in a wide variety of tissues and influence proliferation in the female reproductive tract and mammary gland. It is this proliferative role of these hormones that, a woman s risk for breast and uterine cancer is often associated with lifetime exposure to estrogen. Estrogens induce proliferation of cancer cells by stimulating G1/S transition and the subsequent progression of cell cycle (Ref.1).

In the uterus, estrogen triggers the proliferation of endometrial lining cells during each [...]


1.Multifaceted regulation of cell cycle progression by estrogen: regulation of Cdk inhibitors and Cdc25A independent of cyclin D1-Cdk4 function.
Foster JS, Henley DC, Bukovsky A, Seth P, Wimalasena J.
Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Feb;21(3):794-810.
2.New role for estrogen in cancer?
Service RF.
Science. 1998 Mar 13;279(5357):1631-3. No abstract available. Erratum in: Science 1998 Jun 26;280(5372):2033.
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