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PD-1 PD-L1 Pathway in Cancer

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways hardwired into the immune system that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and limiting collateral tissue damage during anti-microbial immune responses. Checkpoint molecules include Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4), Programmed Death-1 (PD-1), Lymphocyte Activation Gene-3 (LAG-3), and T-cell immunoglobulin and Mucin protein-3 (TIM-3) as well as several others (Ref.1). PD-1, an immunoinhibitory receptor of the CD28 family, is a type 1 trans-membrane protein that encoded by the PDCD1 gene. The structure of the PD-1 includes an extracellular IgV domain, a hydrophobic trans-membrane region and an intracellular domain. PD-1 has two ligands: PD-L1 (also named B7-H1; CD274) and PD-L2 (B7-DC; CD273), that are both co-inhibitory (Ref.2 and 3). PD-1 is inducibly expressed by [...]


1.The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy.
Pardoll DM.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2012 Mar 22;12(4):252-64. doi: 10.1038/nrc3239. Review.
2.Development of PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway in Tumor Immune Microenvironment and Treatment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
He J, Hu Y, Hu M, Li B.
Sci Rep. 2015 Aug 17;5:13110. doi: 10.1038/srep13110. Review.
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