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Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling Friday, June 22, 2018
Our bones get more brittle with increasing age, and to add insult to injury, the most effective therapy for another problem that is associated with getting older, rheumatoid arthritis, often adds to the problem by causing bone resorption.
Insulin Receptor Pathway Insulin Receptor Pathway Tuesday, June 19, 2018
Insulin is the major hormone controlling critical energy functions such as glucose and lipid metabolism. Insulin elicits a diverse array of biological responses by binding to its specific receptor. The insulin receptor belongs to a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that includes the IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factor) receptor and the IRR (Insulin [...]
Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Tuesday, June 19, 2018
MPs (Metalloproteinases) play a key role in the responses of cells to their microenvironment. By effecting proteolytic degradation or activation of cell surface and ECM (Extracellular Matrix) proteins they can modulate both cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, which influence cell differentiation, migration, proliferation and survival. Both secreted and membrane bound forms of metalloproteinases [...]
Inhibition of Angiogenesis by TSP1 Inhibition of Angiogenesis by TSP1 Tuesday, June 19, 2018
Angiogenesis is an essential component for tumor development regulated by both proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. It is a multi-step process that includes endothelial cell proliferation, migration, basement membrane degradation, and new lumen organization. Naturally occurring inhibitors of angiogenesis i.e., antiangiogenic factors are found in mammalian tissues, where they help maintain the quiescence [...]
iNOS Signaling iNOS Signaling Tuesday, June 19, 2018
In eukaryotic cells, NO is metabolically produced by NOS (NO Synthase) from L-Arginine, O2 (Molecular Oxygen), and NADPH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Reduced). In macrophages, an inducible NO synthase (iNOS or NOS2) is produced after activation by endotoxins or cytokines and generates copious amounts of NO presumably to help kill or inhibit the [...]
ITK and TCR Signaling ITK and TCR Signaling Monday, June 18, 2018
Development of a proper immune system requires the selection of lymphocytes expressing a useful repertoire of antigen receptors that can respond to foreign or dangerous antigens but not to self. For T-Cells developing in the thymus, these selection processes include both positive and negative selection of immature CD4 and CD8 cells, helping [...]
ICOS-ICOSL Pathway in T-Helper Cell ICOS-ICOSL Pathway in T-Helper Cell Monday, June 18, 2018
During immune response, T-cells are optimally activated in secondary lymphoid tissues in order to properly migrate into areas of inflamed tissue. Upon antigen recognition via the TCR (T-Cell Receptor)/CD3 (CD3 Antigen) complex, a second co-stimulatory signal from APCs or Antigen-Presenting Cells is necessary for activation of naive T-cells.
Hematopoiesis from Multipotent Stem Cell Hematopoiesis from Multipotent Stem Cell Monday, June 18, 2018
Hematopoiesis is the process that generates blood cells of all lineages (Ref.1). The process of generation of blood cells begins in the early embryo and continues throughout life (Ref.2). Every day, billions of new blood cells are produced in the body, each one derived from a HSC (Hematopoietic Stem Cell). Because most [...]