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Calpain Protease Regulates Cellular Mechanics Calpain Protease Regulates Cellular Mechanics Thursday, March 15, 2018
Metastatic tumor progression, the process by which tumor cells disseminate from their primary site of development, is dependent upon the disruption of both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. These in turn are governed by the multiprotein complexes of Cadherin-dependent adheren junctions and integrin-linked FA (Focal Adhesion) attachment sites. Disruption of these complexes leads [...]
CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell Tuesday, March 13, 2018
CD28 (Antigen CD28) is characterized as a co-receptor for the TCR (T-Cell Receptor)/CD3 (CD3 Antigen) complex and is responsible for providing the co-stimulatory signal required for T-cell activation. CD28 also act as a receptor independent of the TCR and can initiate signaling events without concomitant TCR ligation. Priming of naive T-cells in [...]
Blood Coagulation Cascade Blood Coagulation Cascade Wednesday, February 28, 2018
Coagulation is a dynamic process which involves the regulated sequence of proteolytic activation of a series of zymogens to achieve appropriate and timely haemostasis in an injured vessel, in an environment that overwhelmingly favours an anticoagulant state.
Cellular Apoptosis Pathway Cellular Apoptosis Pathway Tuesday, February 27, 2018
poptosis (also called programmed cell death) is a cellular death program that is inherent to all mammalian cells and plays an important role in the regulation of various physiological and pathological conditions. It serves to eliminate any unnecessary or unwanted cells and is a highly regulated process. There are a wide variety [...]
c-Myc and Apoptosis c-Myc and Apoptosis Monday, February 26, 2018
Many proto-oncogenes participate in the regulation of apoptosis and closely intertwined with their actions are various growth factors and other genes that participate in the control of cellular growth. The proto-oncogene c-Myc encodes a transcription factor c-Myc that plays a critical role in multiple cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and [...]
Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C Monday, February 26, 2018
Oxidative stress/Hypoxia is induced by a wide range of environmental factors including UV stress, pathogen invasion (hypersensitive reaction), oxygen shortage, etc. Generation of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) is characteristic feature of such stress conditions. Of the ROS, both Hydrogen Peroxide and Superoxide are produced in a number of cellular reactions and by [...]
AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway Friday, February 23, 2018
One of the key functions of catabolic metabolism is to maintain high levels of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and cells rapidly respond to any stress that threatens to lower ATP levels by arresting non-essential ATP-utilizing functions and stimulating available ATP-generating pathways. A central player in this system is the AMPK (AMP (Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate)-Activated [...]
MAPK Signaling MAPK Signaling Thursday, February 22, 2018
MAPKs are a group of protein Serine/threonine Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. In combination with several other signaling pathways, they can differentially alter phosphorylation status of numerous proteins, including Transcription Factors, Cytoskeletal proteins, Kinases [...]