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Beta-Adrenergic Signaling Beta-Adrenergic Signaling Wednesday, August 15, 2018
The rate and strength of beating of the heart is under the reciprocal control of the Adrenergic (sympathetic) and Cholinergic (parasympathetic) systems. Increased strength (inotropy) in cardiac beating in response to hormones like the blood-borne Epinephrine or to neurally delivered Norepinephrine is mediated by ADR-Beta (Beta-Adrenergic Receptors) , which are members of [...]
Caspase Cascade Caspase Cascade Thursday, August 09, 2018
Caspases are a family of evolutionary conserved cysteine dependent aspartate-specific proteases that play crucial roles in maintaining organismal homoeostasis throughout life.Mammalian caspases are broadly classified as being inflammatory/pyroptotic (human caspase-1, 4, 5 and 12, murine caspase-1, 11 and 12), or as initiators (human and murine caspase-2, 8, 9 and human caspase-10) and [...]
Assembly of RNA Polymerase-I Initiation Complex Assembly of RNA Polymerase-I Initiation Complex Thursday, August 09, 2018
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain.
BAD Phosphorylation BAD Phosphorylation Tuesday, August 07, 2018
BAD (BCL2 Associated Death Promoter) is a pro-apoptotic critical regulatory component of the intrinsic cell death machinery that exerts its death-promoting effect upon heterodimerization with the antiapoptotic proteins of the BCL2 family defined by conserved regions of identity called BH (BCL2 homology) domains .Members of the BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma-2) family are intracellular [...]
Apoptosis through Death Receptors Apoptosis through Death Receptors Sunday, August 05, 2018
Apoptosis is a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number in tissues and to eliminate individual cells that threaten the animal's survival. Certain cells have unique sensors, termed DR (Death Receptors), on their surface, which detect the presence of extracellular death signals and, in response; they rapidly ignite the [...]
Calpain Protease Regulates Cellular Mechanics Calpain Protease Regulates Cellular Mechanics Tuesday, July 31, 2018
Calpain is an evolutionary old family of soluble, neutral, calcium-dependent proteases, which have the unique property of using protein cleavage to modify the activity/function of their substrate proteins. There are two major calpain isoforms in the brain, calpain-1 and calpain-2.
CHKs in Checkpoint Regulation CHKs in Checkpoint Regulation Tuesday, July 31, 2018
The DNA damage response network involves several kinases to inactivate CDK/ cyclin complexes and result in cell cycle arrest for DNA repair. In the presence of DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication, eukaryotic cells activate cell cycle checkpoints that temporarily halt the cell cycle to permit DNA repair or completion of DNA [...]
4-1BB Pathway 4-1BB Pathway Tuesday, July 31, 2018
4-1BB is an inducible T cell surface receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor super family. It presents on the surface of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, monocytes and B lymphocytes. 4-1BB signaling is activated by