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Fc-EpsilonRI Pathway Fc-EpsilonRI Pathway Monday, November 27, 2017
FcεRI is constitutively expressed on mast cells as a tetrameric receptor composed of the IgE-binding α chain, the membrane-tetraspanning β chain, and the disulfide-linked homodimer of the γ chains. The level of expression of the FcεRI on the mast cell surface can be influenced by several factors, such as IgE availability or [...]
Fc-GammaR Pathway Fc-GammaR Pathway Monday, November 27, 2017
Fcγ receptors are a family of glycoproteins expressed on the membrane of immune cells, and capable of binding the Fc portion of IgG antibody molecules. These receptors bind to various IgG subclasses with different affinities, and when crosslinked by multivalent antigen-antibody complexes, can induce different cellular responses. In humans, several activating receptors [...]
Activation of PKC through GPCR Activation of PKC through GPCR Wednesday, November 08, 2017
PKC (Protein Kinase-C) is a cyclic nucleotide-independent enzyme that phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. PKC plays a pivotal role in mediating cellular responses to extracellular stimuli involved in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and exocytotic release in a number of non-neuronal systems such as Islet cells, Chromaffin cells and Paramecium. [...]
Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases Tuesday, November 07, 2017
In response to a variety of extracellular stimuli, actin filament assembly at the leading edge of motile cells causes protrusion during cell crawling and chemotaxis, nerve growth and cell spreading. The actin filament network immediately under the plasma membrane in regions of rapid cellular protrusion consists of short, branched filaments while those [...]
BMP Pathway BMP Pathway Tuesday, November 07, 2017
BMPs (Bone morphogenetic proteins) are the members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of secreted signaling molecules [Ref.1]. Transduction of BMP signal involves two types of transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors: type I and type II [Ref.1]. BMP2, BMP4, BMP5,BMP6, BMP7, BMP8, BMP9, BMP10, BMP12, BMP13 and BMP14 (Bone morphogenetic protein 2, [...]
B-Cell Development B-Cell Development Tuesday, November 07, 2017
B lymphoid cells are essential for the humoral immune response by producing a diverse range of antigen-specific antibodies. Antibody-mediated immunity is provided by two distinctive B cell lineages that diverge early in life. The better-known conventional, or B2, B cells provide adaptive immunity by producing high-affinity pathogen-specific antibodies, typically in a T [...]
Actin Nucleation and Branching Actin Nucleation and Branching Tuesday, November 07, 2017
The actin family is a diverse and evolutionarily ancient group of proteins that provide the supportive framework to the three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic cells. It provides the forces that enable the cell to adopt a variety of shapes and to undertake directed movements. Certain cell types, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocyte/macrophages, and [...]
TGF-Beta Pathway TGF-Beta Pathway Tuesday, November 07, 2017
TGFB (Transforming growth factor-beta) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell growth, cellular differentiation, apoptosis, and wound healing. TGF-b signals are transmitted through two transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 [Ref.1]. Initiation of the TGFB signaling cascade occurs upon ligand binding to TGFB receptor [...]