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Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling Thursday, January 18, 2018
Development of a functional cardiovascular system is dependent on the regulated proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells in two discrete processes known as vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing vessels, whereas vasculogenesis is de-novo capillary formation from EPCs (Endothelial Precursor Cells). New capillaries arise from [...]
BCR Pathway BCR Pathway Thursday, January 18, 2018
The BCR (B-Cell antigen Receptor) plays a critical role in development, survival, and activation of B cells. The BCR is composed of mIg molecules (Membrane Immunoglobulin) and associated Ig-Alpha/Ig-Beta heterodimer.
EGF Pathway EGF Pathway Thursday, January 18, 2018
EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) is a small 53 amino acid residue protein that is involved in normal cell growth, oncogenesis, and wound healing. This protein shows both strong sequential and functional homology with hTGF-Alpha (human type-Alpha Transforming Growth Factor), which is a competitor for EGF receptor sites.
Androgen Signaling Androgen Signaling Thursday, January 18, 2018
Androgens are recognized as genotropic inducers of a number of physiological functions mainly associated with the development of sexual characteristics. Androgens promote the growth and differentiation of prostate cells through ligand activation of the AR (Androgen Receptor).
Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback onto cAMP Pathway Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback onto cAMP Pathway Thursday, January 18, 2018
One of the ultimate frontiers for mankind is the elucidation of the function of the mind. Dopaminergic and Glutamergic are two primary neurotransmitter systems in the brain, which are crucially important for the control of the body musculature and the Dopamine-induced signaling pathways. Dopamine, a derivative of the amino acid Tyrosine, is [...]
CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell Thursday, January 18, 2018
CD28 (Antigen CD28) is characterized as a co-receptor for the TCR (T-Cell Receptor)/CD3 (CD3 Antigen) complex and is responsible for providing the co-stimulatory signal required for T-cell activation. CD28 also act as a receptor independent of the TCR and can initiate signaling events without concomitant TCR ligation. Priming of naive T-cells in [...]
BDNF Pathway BDNF Pathway Thursday, January 18, 2018
Neurotrophins are an important class of signaling molecules in the brain responsible for axon targeting, neuron growth, maturation of synapses during development, and synaptic plasticity. This family of molecules includes NGF (Nerve Growth Factor), BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor), NT3 (Neurotrophin-3) and NT4 (Neurotrophin-4).
Alzheimer’s Disease Pathway Alzheimer’s Disease Pathway Thursday, January 18, 2018
AD (Alzheimer’s Disease) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to amnesia, cognitive impairment, and senile dementia. Two types of lesions characterize the disease: SPs (Amyloid or Senile Plaques) resulting from the extracellular aggregation of ABeta (Amyloid Beta) peptide, which is derived from a ubiquitous type I transmembrane protein named APP (Amyloid Precursor Protein), [...]