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Chromatin Remodeling Chromatin Remodeling Tuesday, November 13, 2018
The condensation of DNA into an ordered chromatin structure allows the cell to solve the topological problems associated with storing huge molecules of chromosomal DNA within the nucleus. DNA is packaged into chromatin in orderly repeating protein-DNA complexes called nucleosomes. Each nucleosome consists of approximately 146bp of dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) wound 1.8 [...]
eIF2 Pathway eIF2 Pathway Tuesday, November 13, 2018
Protein synthesis in eukaryotic organisms is a complex process that requires cooperation among a large number of polypeptides including ribosomal proteins, modification of enzymes, and ribosome-associated translation factors. The initiation phase of protein synthesis, during which ribosomes select mRNAs to be translated and identify the translational start site, requires a set of [...]
Endocytic Trafficking of EGFR Endocytic Trafficking of EGFR Tuesday, November 13, 2018
All cells need to interpret their environment. Efficient processing of signals from the extracellular milieu is achieved through dynamic signal-transduction systems. The components of this system that come into contact first with external signals are cell-surface receptors. RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) comprise one large group of receptors that respond to polypeptide growth [...]
DRPLA Pathway DRPLA Pathway Tuesday, November 13, 2018
DRPLA (Dentatorubropallidoluysian Atrophy) is a Rare Neurodegenerative Disorder that usually is inherited in an Autosomal Dominant pattern. The Clinical symptoms are variable depending on the age of onset of the disease Myoclonus, Epilepsy, and Mental Retardation are the main symptoms in Juvenile Onset, whereas Cerebellar Ataxia, Choreoathetosis, and Dementia are seen in [...]
DR3 Signaling DR3 Signaling Monday, November 12, 2018
The TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) superfamily comprises a growing family of type I membrane bound glycoproteins, which interact with the TNF family of soluble mediators and type II transmembrane proteins. At least 23 TNFR superfamily members and 17 known ligands have been identified in mammals. These receptors trigger pleiotropic responses, ranging [...]
Lectin Induced Complement Pathway Lectin Induced Complement Pathway Monday, November 12, 2018
Complement is a complex system containing more than 30 various glycoproteins present in serum in the form of components, factors, or other regulators and/or on the surface of different cells in the form of receptors. It is a highly sophisticated host defence system designed to destroy pathogens. Once the complement system is [...]
CTLA4 Signaling CTLA4 Signaling Monday, November 12, 2018
CTLA4 (CD152) is a member of a class of cell surface molecules capable of terminating early events in the receptor-mediated signaling cascade. It is a 41–43 kDa,type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobin superfamily having 223 amino acids in length.
Ephrin-Eph Signaling Ephrin-Eph Signaling Sunday, November 11, 2018
In numerous processes that are vital for the development and maintenance of organism function, cells must communicate crucial information to respond appropriately to the changing environment. As such, RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) are transmembrane proteins, which, on receiving an external stimulus, respond by transmitting a signal to the inside of the cell. [...]