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Hedgehog Signaling in Mammals Hedgehog Signaling in Mammals Wednesday, February 06, 2019
Controlled cell proliferation is a predominant theme in normal embryonic and post-embryonic development, and, in many instances, cell-type specification and cell proliferation are intimately coupled. Several secreted intercellular signaling proteins that behave as morphogens during pattern formation are also implicated in the regulation of the cell cycle. Hedgehogs (Hhs) are one such [...]
CCR3 Pathway in Eosinophils CCR3 Pathway in Eosinophils Thursday, January 24, 2019
Human eosinophils are crucial effector cells implicated in a number of chronic inflammatory reactions, associated with bronchial asthma, allergic-inflammatory diseases, and parasitic infections.The chemotactic response of eosinophils is mostly mediated by CCR3 (CC Chemokine Receptor-3), a member of the G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptor family, linked to heterotrimeric G-Proteins. Although its expression was [...]
Estrogen-mediated S-Phase Entry Estrogen-mediated S-Phase Entry Tuesday, January 22, 2019
Estrogens are a class of steroid hormones that play a central role in reproduction, and are regarded as the powerful female hormones that make a girl develop into a woman capable of reproduction. Estrogenic steroids, that include: E1 (Estrone), E2 (Estradiol/17-beta Estradiol) and E3 (Estriol), regulate cellular functions in a wide variety [...]
Granzyme Pathway Granzyme Pathway Monday, January 21, 2019
Killer lymphocytes are key players in the effector arm of the immune response that eliminate cells infected with intracellular pathogens and transformed tumor cells. Killer cells in both adaptive and innate immunity-T cells (CTLS) and natural killer (NK) cells, respectively, use the same basic mechanisms for destroying their targets, although they are [...]
Granzyme-B Pathway Granzyme-B Pathway Monday, January 21, 2019
CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes) and NK (Natural Killer) cells are the key immune effectors that eradicate infected cells or tumors. To destroy these targets, CTLs and NK cells mostly use the granule exocytosis pathway, which releases perforin and Granzymes from cytolytic granules into the immunological synapse formed with the target. Granzyme-A and [...]
Granzyme-A Pathway Granzyme-A Pathway Monday, January 21, 2019
CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes) and NK (Natural Killer) cells are the key immune effectors that eradicate infected cells or tumors. To destroy these targets, CTLs and NK cells mostly use the granule exocytosis pathway, which releases perforin and Granzymes from cytolytic granules into the immunological synapse formed with the target.
CDC42 Pathway CDC42 Pathway Friday, January 18, 2019
Dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton underpins a multitude of cellular processes, from cell movement and polarization1,2 to cell division.3 The actin cytoskeleton and the proteins involved in its regulation are also fundamentally linked to endocytosis and membrane trafficking.4,5 Members of the Rho family of small GTPases have emerged as important overseers [...]
CD40 Signaling CD40 Signaling Friday, January 18, 2019
CD40, a TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) family member, conveys signals regulating diverse cellular responses, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to growth suppression and cell death. First identified and functionally characterized on B-Cells, CD40 is expressed on a plethora of different cell types, including B-Cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, [...]