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PD-1 PD-L1 Pathway in Cancer PD-1 PD-L1 Pathway in Cancer Tuesday, October 17, 2017
Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways hardwired into the immune system that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and limiting collateral tissue damage during anti-microbial immune responses. Checkpoint molecules include Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4)
Activation of PKC through GPCR Activation of PKC through GPCR Monday, October 16, 2017
PKC (Protein Kinase-C) is a cyclic nucleotide-independent enzyme that phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. PKC plays a pivotal role in mediating cellular responses to extracellular stimuli involved in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and exocytotic release in a number of non-neuronal systems such as Islet cells, Chromaffin cells and Paramecium. [...]
Activation of NF-KappaB by PKR Activation of NF-KappaB by PKR Monday, October 16, 2017
PKR (Protein Kinase-R) is a 68-kDa serine–threonine kinase that appears to play a primary role in mediating the antiviral activities of infected cells. PKR mediates apoptosis induced by many different stimuli, such as LPS (Lipopolysaccharides), TNF-Alpha (Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha), viral infection, or serum starvation. Viral infection leads to the increased expression and [...]
APRIL Pathway APRIL Pathway Monday, October 16, 2017
APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand, also known as TRDL-1, TALL-2, and TNFSF13), is a member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) superfamily, with homologous structure and function to several other cytokines in this family. It is a cytokine which is over-expressed by transformed cells and could stimulate cellular proliferation. It has two receptors [...]
BAFF in B-Cell Signaling BAFF in B-Cell Signaling Monday, October 16, 2017
BAFF (B-cell activating factor), is a member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) ligand family that plays important roles in B-cell homeostasis, tolerance, and malignancy [Ref.1). It is also known as BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator) protein, TALL-1 (TNF and apoptosis ligand-related leukocyte-expressed ligand-1), zTNF4, CD257, TNFSF13B, TNFS20 (TNF superfamily member) and THANK [...]
Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA Monday, October 16, 2017
cAMP (Cyclic 3', 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate)-dependent Protein Kinase, commonly known as PKA (Protein Kinase-A), is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, metabolism, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Known modulators of PKA activity include factors that either activate or inhibit AC (Adenylate Cyclase), [...]
Activation of PKA through GPCR Activation of PKA through GPCR Monday, October 16, 2017
PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is a second messenger-dependent enzyme that has been implicated in a wide range of cellular processes, including transcription, metabolism, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Known modulators of PKA activity include factors that either activate or inhibit AC (Adenylate Cyclase), resulting in an increase or decrease in cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine [...]
Cytokine Network Cytokine Network Monday, October 16, 2017
The immune system recognizes the presence of pathogens by several proteins that bind to molecules secreted by the pathogen or carried on their surface. The cells responsible for these immune responses include the B-Cells, T-Cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, endothelial cells, or mast cells . These cells have distinct roles in the [...]