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Akt Signaling Akt Signaling Wednesday, June 21, 2017
Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/PKB(Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis and stimulation of cell proliferation. Three mammalian isoforms are currently known: Akt1/PKB- Alpha, Akt2/PKB-Beta and Akt3/PKB-Gamma. All three isoforms of Akt share a common structure of three domains. [...]
Autophagy Autophagy Wednesday, January 25, 2017
Autophagy is a process of self-degradation of cellular components in which double-membrane autophagosomes sequester organelles or portions of cytosol and fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles for breakdown by resident hydrolases.
ZIKA Virus Infection And Host Response ZIKA Virus Infection And Host Response Thursday, September 15, 2016
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which can cause microcephaly, a birth defect where a baby's head is smaller than usual. Additionally, it is associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that could lead to paralysis and even death.
ZIKA Virus Replication ZIKA Virus Replication Thursday, September 15, 2016
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus. Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat by virtue of its fast paced global spread and its associated morbidities, [...]
JNK Pathway JNK Pathway Wednesday, August 17, 2016
MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) are Serine-threonine protein Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. MAPKs are expressed in multiple cell types including Cardiomyocytes, Vascular Endothelial cells, and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Three major MAPKs include ERKs [...]
Rho Family GTPases Rho Family GTPases Wednesday, March 23, 2016
The Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins comprises a group of signaling molecules that are activated by a variety of Growth factors, Cytokines, Adhesion molecules, Hormones, Integrins, G-proteins and other biologically active substances and regulate a wide range of biological processes, including Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton, Transcriptional Regulation, Vesicle Trafficking, Morphogenesis, Neutrophil activation, [...]
Integrin Pathway Integrin Pathway Monday, February 08, 2016
Adhesive interactions between cells and ECM (Extracellular Matrix) proteins play a vital role in biological processes, including cell survival, growth, differentiation, migration, inflammatory responses, platelet aggregation, tissue repair and tumor invasion (Ref.4) and perturbing this coordination can lead to events such as malignant transformation. The major groups of proteins mediating these interactions [...]
Cytokine Network Cytokine Network Wednesday, December 02, 2015
The immune system recognizes the presence of pathogens by several proteins that bind to molecules secreted by the pathogen or carried on their surface. The cells responsible for these immune responses include the B-Cells, T-Cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, endothelial cells, or mast cells (Ref.1). These cells have distinct roles in the [...]