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Checkpoint Comparative Pathways Checkpoint Comparative Pathways Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Cell cycle checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that monitor the order, integrity, and fidelity of the major events of the cell cycle. These include growth to the appropriate cell size, the replication and integrity of the chromosomes, and their accurate segregation at mitosis. Many of these mechanisms are ancient in origin and highly [...]
CMV and MAPK Pathways CMV and MAPK Pathways Tuesday, April 16, 2019
An upregulation of cellular signaling pathways is observed in multiple cell types upon HCMV(human cytomegalovirus) infection, suggesting that a global feature of HCMV infection is the activation of the host cell. HCMV initiates and maintains cellular signaling through a multitiered process that is dependent on a series of events: (1) the viral [...]
Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway Intrinsic Prothrombin Activation Pathway Monday, April 15, 2019
The process by which the body prevents blood loss is referred to as coagulation. Thrombin/TFIIa (Activated Factor-II) is a multifunctional serine proteinase, which serves as an essential component of the process of Blood Coagulation - the hemostatic process of greatest interest. When a blood vessel is injured, bleeding is stopped by clotting [...]
Cell Cycle Control of Chromosomal Replication Cell Cycle Control of Chromosomal Replication Friday, April 12, 2019
The stable propagation of genetic information requires that the entire genome of an organism be faithfully replicated only once in each cell cycle. In eukaryotes, this replication is initiated at hundreds to thousands of replication origins distributed over the genome, each of which must be prohibited from re-initiating DNA replication within every [...]
Cellular Transformation by HTLV1 Cellular Transformation by HTLV1 Friday, April 12, 2019
The HTLV-1(human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) is the etiological agent of ATL(adult T-cell leukemia). HTLV-1 Tax has been shown to have a prosurvival role in infected T cells by enhancing expression of the BCL-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins.After intensive studies, evidence has shown that the viral protein Tax has a key role [...]
Cellular Immune Responses to HBV Cellular Immune Responses to HBV Friday, April 12, 2019
HBV(Hepatitis B virus) is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae. It is a hepatotropic non-cytopathic DNA virus and is a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. As HBV itself is currently viewed as a non-cytopathic virus, the liver pathology associated with hepatitis B is mainly thought to be due [...]
Chromatin Remodeling Chromatin Remodeling Wednesday, April 10, 2019
The condensation of DNA into an ordered chromatin structure allows the cell to solve the topological problems associated with storing huge molecules of chromosomal DNA within the nucleus. DNA is packaged into chromatin in orderly repeating protein-DNA complexes called nucleosomes. Each nucleosome consists of approximately 146bp of dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) wound 1.8 [...]
JNK Pathway JNK Pathway Wednesday, April 10, 2019
MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) are Serine-threonine protein Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. MAPKs are expressed in multiple cell types including Cardiomyocytes, Vascular Endothelial cells, and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Three major MAPKs include ERKs [...]