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Ebola Virus Pathogenesis Ebola Virus Pathogenesis Thursday, July 20, 2017
Ebola virus is an aggressive pathogen that causes a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever syndrome in humans and nonhuman primates. Typically, Ebola virus infection runs its course within 14 to 21 days. Infection initially presents with nonspecific flu-like symptoms such as fever, myalgia, and malaise. As the infection progresses, patients exhibit severe bleeding [...]
NFAT Signaling and Lymphocyte Interactions NFAT Signaling and Lymphocyte Interactions Thursday, July 20, 2017
The optimum functioning of the immune system is crucial for human survival. The invading pathogens are encountered by the cells of the immune system, which include T-Cells, B-Cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, endothelial cells, or mast cells. These cells have distinct roles in the immune system, and cell-to-cell communication among these cells [...]
NFAT in Immune Response NFAT in Immune Response Thursday, July 20, 2017
Antigenic stimulation of lymphocytes and other cells of the immune system initiates a complex series of intracellular signal transduction pathways that lead to the expression of a panel of immunoregulatory genes, whose function is critical to the initiation and coordination of the immune response. NFATs (Nuclear Factors of Activated T-Cells), a family [...]
NF-KappaB Family Pathway NF-KappaB Family Pathway Thursday, July 20, 2017
NF-KappaB (Nuclear Factor-KappaB) is a heterodimeric protein composed of different combinations of members of the Rel family of transcription factors. The Rel/ NF-KappaB family of transcription factors are involved mainly in stress-induced, immune, and inflammatory responses. In addition, these molecules play important roles during the development of certain hemopoietic cells, keratinocytes, and lymphoid organ structures. More [...]
p70S6K Signaling p70S6K Signaling Thursday, July 20, 2017
p70S6K is a protein Ser-Thr kinase that phosphorylates the ribosomal S6 subunit, a component of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. It plays a role in protein synthesis and in cell growth control during G1 phase in vivo to enhance translation of certain mRNA species. This enzyme has complex regulation: Phosphorylation by PDK-1 (Phosphoinositide Dependent Kinase-1) [...]
Circadian Clock in Neurospora Circadian Clock in Neurospora Thursday, July 20, 2017
Circadian rhythms are endogenous biological programs that time metabolic and/or behavioral events to occur at optimal phases of the daily cycle. Although these rhythms parallel environmental cycles of light and dark, they are not simply a reaction to environmental fluctuations, but are generated by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock. [...]
Parkinson’s Disease Pathway Parkinson’s Disease Pathway Thursday, July 20, 2017
Parkinson's disease is a Neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the appearance of intracellular inclusions, named Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the remaining nigral neurons. The Substantia nigra is located in the midbrain region of the brain. It consists of two parts: [...]
PI3K Signaling in B-Lymphocyte PI3K Signaling in B-Lymphocyte Thursday, July 20, 2017
PI3Ks (Phosphoinositide-3-Kinases) regulate numerous biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration and metabolism. In the immune system, impaired PI3K signaling leads to immunodeficiency, whereas unrestrained PI3K signaling contributes to autoimmunity and Leukemia. The Class I and III PI3Ks basically facilitate B-cell development through defined stages, resulting in at least three [...]