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Rho Family GTPases

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The Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins comprises a group of signaling molecules that are activated by a variety of Growth factors, Cytokines, Adhesion molecules, Hormones, Integrins, G-proteins and other biologically active substances and regulate a wide range of biological processes, including Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton, Transcriptional Regulation, Vesicle Trafficking, Morphogenesis, Neutrophil activation, Phagocytosis and activation of the NADPH Oxidase, Mitogenesis, Apoptosis and Tumorigenesis. The mammalian Rho GTPase family currently consists of three subfamilies, Rho (RhoA, RhoB and RhoC), Rac (Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3) and CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle-42) (CDC42Hs and G25K). The best-characterized family members of Rho Family GTPase are RhoA, Rac1 and CDC42. Each controls the formation of a distinct cytoskeletal element in mammalian cells. Activation of Rac induces Actin polymerization to form Lamellipodia (broad web-like extensions), whereas activation of CDC42 stimulates the polymerization of [...]


1.Evolution of the Rho Family of Ras-like GTPases in Eukaryotes.
Boureux A, Vignal E, Faure S, Fort P.
Mol Biol Evol. 2006 Oct 11;
2.Rho GTPases and actin dynamics in membrane protrusions and vesicle trafficking.
Ridley AJ.
Trends Cell Biol. 2006 Oct;16(10):522-9. Epub 2006 Sep 1.
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