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TGF-Beta Pathway

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


TGFB (Transforming growth factor-beta) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell growth, cellular differentiation, apoptosis, and wound healing. TGF-b signals are transmitted through two transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 [Ref.1]. Initiation of the TGFB signaling cascade occurs upon ligand binding to TGFB receptor TGFBR2 and subsequent TGFBR1– TGFBR2 heterotetrameric complex formation. TGFBR2 is a constitutively active receptor kinase and phosphorylates Ser/Thr residues in the cytoplasmic GS domain of TGFBR1, which turns on the kinase activity of TGFBR1. Upon Activation, TGFBR1 transmits its signal to the various intracellular SMAD-dependent and SMAD independent signaling pathways [Ref.1].

The canonical SMAD pathway involves activation of SMAD2/3 through recruitment and phosphorylation by activated TGFBR1, and kinase [...]


1.TGF-β-activated kinase-1: New insights into the mechanism of TGF-β signaling and kidney disease.
Kim SI, Choi ME.
Kidney Res Clin Pract. 2012 Jun; 31(2):94-105. doi: 10.1016/j.krcp.2012.04.322. Epub 2012 Apr 26.
2.The tale of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signaling: a soigné enigma.
Chaudhury A, Howe PH.
IUBMB Life. 2009 Oct; 61(10):929-39. doi: 10.1002/iub.239.
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