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Thrombin Signaling

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Description

Thrombin is a multifunctional serine protease involved in a number of pathophysiological processes that include blood clotting, inflammation, repair processes and tumor metastasis. In brain, thrombin regulates the viability of neurons and astrocytes by increasing survival under conditions of hypoglycemia and oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis under other conditions. Thrombin is also chemotactic for macrophages and mitogenic for smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and astrocytes and induces secretion of growth factors and cytokines from fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Most of the thrombin-mediated effects are preceded by morphological changes in cells that follow activation of PARs (Protease-Activated Receptors) (Ref.1).

PARs are a unique class of heterotrimeric, transmembrane GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors) activated by serine proteases that cleave specific regions of the extracellular [...]

References:

1.Pathologies at the nexus of blood coagulation and inflammation: thrombin in hemostasis, cancer, and beyond.
Danckwardt S, Hentze MW, Kulozik AE.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2013 Nov;91(11):1257-71. doi: 10.1007/s00109-013-1074-5. Epub 2013 Aug 17. Review.
2.Transactivation of the PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer by thrombin elicits β-arrestin-mediated endosomal signaling.
Lin H, Trejo J.
J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 19;288(16):11203-15. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.439950. Epub 2013 Mar 8.
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