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Visual Cycle in Retinal Rods

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Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol) is a vital and essential micronutrient in the human diet and is required for multiple physiological processes, ranging from vision to embryonic development. ‘Vitamin-A’ means a group of substances (Retinol, Retinyl Esters and Retinal) with defined biological activities. Further, there are certain metabolites of Vitamin-A, such as all-trans and cis-isomeric Retinoic Acids, that perform some, but not all, of the biological functions of Vitamin-A; they are incapable of being metabolically converted into Retinol, Retinal, etc. The main dietary sources of Retinol are Retinyl Esters from meat, and Carotenoids, such as Beta-Carotene, from plant tissue (Ref.1). Dietary Vitamin-A gives rise to a variety of active metabolites, collectively known as Retinoids (also known as Vitamin-A Analogues). Retinoic Acid and some [...]


1.A palmitoylation switch mechanism in the regulation of the visual cycle.
Xue L, Gollapalli DR, Maiti P, Jahng WJ, Rando RR.
Cell. 2004 Jun 11;117(6):761-71.
2.Retinoid-induced limb malformations.
Lee GS, Kochhar DM, Collins MD.
Curr. Pharm. Des. 2004;10(22):2657-99.
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