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iNOS Signaling

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Microorganisms have developed several mechanisms to survive in their hosts environments. These include competition with their hosts for metal acquisition and resistance to host defenses such as NO (Nitric Oxide), a cytotoxic weapon generated by macrophages. In eukaryotic cells, NO is metabolically produced by NOS (NO Synthase) from L-Arginine, O2 (Molecular Oxygen), and NADPH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Reduced). In macrophages, an inducible NO synthase (iNOS or NOS2) is produced after activation by endotoxins or cytokines and generates copious amounts of NO presumably to help kill or inhibit the growth of invading microorganisms or neoplastic tissue. Although iNOS was originally identified and characterized in macrophages, it is present in numerous cell types including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells and [...]


1.Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function.
Förstermann U, Sessa WC.
Eur Heart J. 2012 Apr;33(7):829-37, 837a-837d. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr304. Epub 2011 Sep 1. Review.
2.The Characteristics and Regulatory Mechanisms of Superoxide Generation from eNOS Reductase Domain.
Peng H, Zhuang Y, Chen Y, Rizzo AN, Chen W.
PLoS One. 2015 Oct 14;10(10):e0140365. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140365. eCollection 2015.
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