Innate immune system plays an important role in immune responses against pathogen invasion in vertebrates and invertebrates. In mammalian systems, it provides the first line of defense against multiple pathogens, whereas in insects, the entire immune system is innate. The Toll pathway plays important functions in innate immunity against infectious pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. Activation of the Toll pathway is different between vertebrates and invertebrates. In vertebrates like Homo sapiens, Toll pathway is directl...
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