Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingomyelin derivative that is present in plasma and serum at high nanomolar concentrations. S1P acts via the specific cell surface G-protein-coupled receptors, S1P1-5. S1P1 and S1P2 were originally identified from vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells, respectively. S1P receptors modulate multiple intracellular pathways and thereby regulate central cellular process[...]
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