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Pathways

Metabolic Pathways

Displaying 133 to 144 (of 291 pathways)

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine that has numerous important functions within cells. Glutathione is homeostatically controlled, both inside the cell and outside. It often attains millimolar levels inside cells, which makes it one of the most highly concentrated intracellular antioxidants. Glutathione exists in two forms. The antioxidant "reduced Glutathione" tripeptide is conventionally called Glutathione. The oxidized form is a sulfur-sulfur linked compound, known as Glutathione[..]

Idiomarina loihiensis is a deep-sea Gamma-proteobacterium. The bacterial genome encodes diverse peptidases, a variety of peptide and amino acid uptake systems, and versatile signal transduction machinery. In contrast to obligate anaerobic vent hyperthermophiles, I. loihiensis inhabits partially oxygenated cold waters at the periphery of the vent, surviving a wide range of growth temperatures (from 4°C to 46°C) and salinities (from 0.5% to 20% NaCl). The source of amino acids for I. loihiensis growth is the proteinaceous particles, present in the deep sea hydrothermal vent waters. The microbe is an opportunistic colonizer of proteinaceous particles in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent waters and colonizes these particles by using the secreted exopolysaccharide, digest[..]

Cyanide is an important industrial chemical produced on a grand scale each year. Under physiological conditions at pH 7, Cyanide is mostly present as HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide). HCN, being volatile and less dense than air, can rapidly diffuse into the environment. Although extremely toxic to mammalian life, Cyanide is a natural product generated during Cyanogenesis by fungi, algae, plants and bacteria. These organisms degrade Cyanide either to detoxify it, or to use it as a source of nitrogen for growth. Cyanogenesis in a wide range of plants constitutes a chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens. Plants use Cyanogenic Glucosides (e.g. Amygdalin) as precursors of Cyanide. Cyanide detoxification mechanisms are widespread in nature and involve enzymatic degradation[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine that has numerous important functions within cells. It is homeostatically controlled, both inside the cell and outside and often attains millimolar levels inside cells, which makes it one of the most highly concentrated intracellular antioxidants. Glutathione exists in two forms. The antioxidant "reduced Glutathione" tripeptide is conventionally called Glutathione and abbreviated Gsh; the oxidized form is a sulfur-sulfur linked compound, known as Glutathione[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine that has numerous important functions within cells. It is homeostatically controlled, both inside the cell and outside and often attains millimolar levels inside cells, which makes it one of the most highly concentrated intracellular antioxidants. Glutathione exists in two forms. The antioxidant "reduced Glutathione" tripeptide is conventionally called Glutathione and abbreviated Gsh; the oxidized form is a sulfur-sulfur linked compound, known as Glutathione[..]

Legionella pneumophila is a motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, aerobic, bacterium, considered to be a facultative parasite. L. pneumophila is the causative agent of the Legionnaires' disease, a potential fatal pneumonia. L. pneumophila Lens is an epidemic strain and was responsible for a major outbreak of disease in France. Glutathione metabolism in L. pneumophila occurs within cells in two closely linked, enzymatically controlled reactions that utilize ATP and draw on nonessential amino acids as substrates. Glutathione is a tripeptide, composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine, and has numerous important functions within the bacterial cell. This tripeptide is specifically a thiol compound, present in the highest concentration in all types of cells (Ref.1 &[..]

Legionella pneumophila is a motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, aerobic, bacterium, considered to be a facultative parasite. L. pneumophila is the causative agent of the Legionnaires' disease, a potential fatal pneumonia. L. pneumophila Paris is an endemic strain that is predominant in France. Only strain Paris contains a Type-V Secretion System, and its Lvh Type-IV secretion system is encoded by a 36-kb region that is either carried on a multicopy plasmid or integrated into the chromosome. Numerous genes in L. pneumophila encode eukaryotic-like proteins or motifs that are predicted to modulate host cell functions to the pathogen's advantage. The genome thus reflects the history and lifestyle of L. pneumophila, a human pathogen of macrophages that co-evolved with[..]

The genus Legionella represents a wide variety of Gram-negative, aerobic, bacterium that can, under certain circumstances, cause pneumonia, particularly in debilitated individuals. By far the most common species of Legionella responsible for such infections is Legionella pneumophila, considered to be a facultative parasite. L. pneumophila is the causative agent of the Legionnaires' disease, a potential fatal pneumonia. The fatality rate for Legionella pneumonia can be as high as 50% in immunocompromised patients, but if diagnosed early, antibiotic therapy commonly results in a successful outcome. In general, among the L. pneumophila clinical isolates, L. pneumophila Philadelphia-1 is the most widely studied that do not display high levels of innate resistance to[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine and has numerous important functions within the Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis cells. M. avium paratuberculosis is a member of the MAC (Mycobacterium Avium Complex) but it differs significantly from other forms of MAC in its DNA. It is a causative organism of Johne's disease, a form of chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease in cattle and other species, including primates (Ref.1).Glutathione metabolism in M. avium occurs within cells in two closely linked,[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine and has numerous important functions within the Mycobacterium cells. Mycobacteria are Gram-positive, non-motile, pleomorphic rods shaped bacteria related to the Actinomyces. Most Mycobacteria are found in habitats such as water or soil. However, a few are intracellular pathogens of animals and humans. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in a range of animal species and man, with worldwide annual losses to agriculture. M. bovis is also[..]

Methylococcus capsulatus is an obligate, Gram-negative methanotroph. Methanotrophs are responsible for the oxidation of biologically generated methane and therefore help reduce the amount of greenhouse gas that is released to Earth's atmosphere. The conversion of methane to biomass by M. capsulatus has been exploited for large-scale commercial production of microbial proteins by fermentation. Thus, the bacterium plays major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reduces emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. M. capsulatus genome is highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways, predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane[..]

Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Azorhizobium-known as Rhizobia-are Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacteria of agronomic importance because they perform nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. Nodule formation and the subsequent nitrogen-fixation result from a series of interactions controlled by the exchange of molecular signals between symbiotic bacteria and host plants followed by expression of genes from both symbiotic partners. Mesorhizobium loti is able to form determinant-type globular nodules and perform nitrogen-fixation on several Lotus species (Ref.1, 2 & 3). Glutathione metabolism in M. loti involves both the synthesis of Glutathione and its catabolism. Glutathione is a small molecule found in almost every cell. It[..]

Displaying 133 to 144 (of 291 pathways)
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