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Pathways

Metabolic Pathways

Displaying 133 to 144 (of 288 pathways)

Cyanide is an important industrial chemical produced on a grand scale each year. Under physiological conditions at pH 7, Cyanide is mostly present as HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide). HCN, being volatile and less dense than air, can rapidly diffuse into the environment. Although extremely toxic to mammalian life, Cyanide is a natural product generated during Cyanogenesis by fungi, algae, plants and bacteria. These organisms degrade Cyanide either to detoxify it, or to use it as a source of nitrogen for growth. Cyanogenesis in a wide range of plants constitutes a chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens. Plants use Cyanogenic Glucosides (e.g. Amygdalin) as precursors of Cyanide. Cyanide detoxification mechanisms are widespread in nature and involve enzymatic degradation[..]

Leptospira is a genus of spirochaete Gram negative bacteria, which is divided into 20 species. Leptospira are obligate aerobe spirochete with cytoplasmic and outer membrane and two flagella that extend from the cytoplasmic membrane at the ends of the bacterium into the periplasmic space and are necessary for the motility of Leptospira. Leptospira interrogans are also grouped into serovars according to their antigenic relatedness. There are currently over 200 recognized serovars. L. interrogans infects wild and domestic animals, including pet dogs. Humans are accidental hosts. L. interrogans is usually transmitted to humans through contact with infected animal urine, either directly or in water. It invades directly through broken skin and can replicate in the liver and[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine that has numerous important functions within cells. It is homeostatically controlled, both inside the cell and outside and often attains millimolar levels inside cells, which makes it one of the most highly concentrated intracellular antioxidants. Glutathione exists in two forms. The antioxidant "reduced Glutathione" tripeptide is conventionally called Glutathione and abbreviated Gsh; the oxidized form is a sulfur-sulfur linked compound, known as Glutathione[..]

Legionella pneumophila is a motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, aerobic, bacterium, considered to be a facultative parasite. L. pneumophila is the causative agent of the Legionnaires' disease, a potential fatal pneumonia. L. pneumophila Lens is an epidemic strain L. pneumophila Paris was responsible for a major outbreak of disease in France. Other virulent strains belonging to serogroup 1 are Lens, Philadelphia, Lorraine (Ref.1&2).Glutathione metabolism in L. pneumophila occurs within cells in two closely linked, enzymatically controlled reactions that utilize ATP and draw on nonessential amino acids as substrates. Glutathione is a tripeptide, composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine, and has numerous important functions within the bacterial cell. This[..]

Legionella pneumophila is a motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, aerobic, bacterium, considered to be a facultative parasite. L. pneumophila is the causative agent of the Legionnaires' disease, a potential fatal pneumonia. L. pneumophila Paris is an endemic strain that is predominant in France. Only strain Paris contains a Type-V Secretion System, and its Lvh Type-IV secretion system is encoded by a 36-kb region that is either carried on a multicopy plasmid or integrated into the chromosome. Numerous genes in L. pneumophila encode eukaryotic-like proteins or motifs that are predicted to modulate host cell functions to the pathogen's advantage. The genome thus reflects the history and lifestyle of L. pneumophila, a human pathogen of macrophages that co-evolved[..]

The genus Legionella represents a wide variety of Gram-negative, aerobic, bacterium that can, under certain circumstances, cause pneumonia, particularly in debilitated individuals. By far the most common species of Legionella responsible for such infections is Legionella pneumophila, considered to be a facultative parasite. L. pneumophila is the causative agent of the Legionnaires' disease, a potential fatal pneumonia. The fatality rate for Legionella pneumonia can be as high as 50% in immunocompromised patients, but if diagnosed early, antibiotic therapy commonly results in a successful outcome. In general, among the L. pneumophila clinical isolates, L. pneumophila Philadelphia-1 is the most widely studied that do not display high levels of innate resistance to[..]

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogenic bacterium in the genus Mycobacterium. It is often abbreviated M. paratuberculosis and is a part of the Mycobacterium avium complex in the genus Mycobacterium and family Mycobacteriaceae. The M. avium complex contains two clearly defined species M. avium and M intracellulare. M. paratuberculosis is a facultative intracellular, Gram-positive, acid-fast and small rod-shaped bacterium. The cell wall is thick and waxy and made up of mycolate and peptidoglycan layers held together by arabinogalactan. It causes disease primarily in ruminants like cattle, sheep, goats, deer, etc M. paratuberculosis may be spread from animal to human hosts by water and foodborne transmission routes, where the[..]

Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), is a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species responsible for tuberculosis in cattle and zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. Mycobacteria are Gram-positive, non-motile, pleomorphic rods shaped bacteria related to the Actinomyces. Most Mycobacteria are found in habitats such as water or soil. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, deadly infection most often caused by M. bovis and Mycobacterium caprae (M. caprae), two species belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Mycobacterium bovis M. bovis is a slow-growing (16- to 20-hour generation time) aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle (Ref.1&2).  Glutathione (GSH), short for γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine, is integral to cellular physiology[..]

Methylococcus capsulatus is an obligate, Gram-negative methanotroph. Methanotrophs are responsible for the oxidation of biologically generated methane and therefore help reduce the amount of greenhouse gas that is released to Earth's atmosphere. The conversion of methane to biomass by M. capsulatus has been exploited for large-scale commercial production of microbial proteins by fermentation. Thus, the bacterium plays major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reduces emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. M. capsulatus genome is highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways, predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane[..]

Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Azorhizobium-known as Rhizobia-are Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacteria of agronomic importance because they perform nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. Nodule formation and the subsequent nitrogen-fixation result from a series of interactions controlled by the exchange of molecular signals between symbiotic bacteria and host plants followed by expression of genes from both symbiotic partners. Mesorhizobium loti formerly known as Rhizobium loti is able to form determinant-type globular nodules and perform nitrogen-fixation on several Lotus species. Glutathione metabolism in M. loti involves both the synthesis of Glutathione and its catabolism. Glutathione is a small molecule found in[..]

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a Gram-positive bacterium of the family Actinomycetes. M. tuberculosis is the causative agent of Tuberculosis (TB) which is the world’s second commonest cause of death next to HIV/AIDS. M. tuberculosis is adept at resisting stresses imposed by host immunity, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and restricted access to oxygen, iron, and metabolizable sources of carbon. During adaptation to such stresses, M. tuberculosis alters its physiology and enters a slowly replicating or nonreplicating state in which it becomes phenotypically relatively tolerant to most TB drugs (Ref.1). The increasing emergence of multi drug resistance and the recalcitrant nature of persistent infections pose an additional[..]

The tripeptide Glutathione is part of an integrated antioxidant system that protects cells and tissues from oxidative damage. Oxidative stress can result from exposure to excessive amounts of endogenous and exogenous electrophiles (Ref.1). Glutathione exists in two forms. The antioxidant "reduced Glutathione" tripeptide is conventionally called Glutathione and abbreviated Gsh; the oxidized form is a sulfur-sulfur linked compound, known as Glutathione Disulfide or GSSG. The GSSG/Gsh ratio may be a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress. Glutathione has potent electron-donating capacity. The reducing power of Gsh is a measure of its free-radical scavenging, electron-donating, and sulfhydryl-donating capacity. Reducing power is also the key to the multiple[..]

Displaying 133 to 144 (of 288 pathways)
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