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Pathways

Metabolic Pathways

Displaying 241 to 252 (of 291 pathways)

The spore-bearing alkaliphilic Bacillus species constitute a large, heterogeneous group of microorganisms which are now being investigated in order to better understand the physiology, biochemistry, and especially molecular genetics underlying the behavior of alkaliphilic bacteria. As alkaliphilic Bacillus strains produce enzymes, such as xylanases, cellulases, amylases, and proteases, they are very useful in industry and domestic life. B. clausii is an alkalitolerant species of Bacillus (Ref.1, 2 & 3).The cell wall of these Gram-positive bacteria is a unique biopolymer, containing both D- and L-Amino acids. Its basic structure is a carbohydrate backbone of alternating units of N-Acetyl Glucosamine and N-Acetyl Muramic Acid. The N-Acetyl Muramic Acid residues are[..]

Bacillus licheniformis(B. licheniformis) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to B. subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Unlike most other Bacilli, which are predominantly aerobic, B. licheniformis is a facultative anaerobe, which may allow it to grow in additional ecological niches. The type strain ATCC 14580 consists of a circular chromosome best studied of all B. licheniformis strains (Ref.1).The cell wall of these Gram-positive bacteria is a unique biopolymer, containing both D- and L-Amino acids. Its basic structure is a[..]

Bacillus licheniformis(B. licheniformis) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, and B. pumilus comprise the subtilis group, which has been associated with a range of clinical conditions, food spoilage such as ropy bread, and incidents of food-borne gastroenteritis. B. licheniformis has also been associated with septicemia, peritonitis, ophthalmitis, and food poisoning in humans, as well as with bovine toxemia and abortions. It is a common contaminant of dairy products. B. licheniformis DSM13 consists of a single chromosome and has a well-conserved secretory system (Ref.1).The cell wall of these Gram-positive[..]

Bacilli are rod-shaped, Gram-positive, sporulating, aerobes or facultative anaerobes. Most bacilli are saprophytes. Due to the metabolic diversity in the genus Bacillus, Bacilli are able to colonize a variety of habitats ranging from soil to insects, to humans (Ref.1). B. thuringiensis (commonly known as 'Bt') is an insecticidal bacterium, marketed worldwide for control of many important plant pests mainly caterpillars of the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) but also for control of mosquito larvae and simuliid blackflies that vector river blindness in Africa. It produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide number of insect larvae and is the most commonly used biological pesticide worldwide (Ref. 2 & 3). The cell wall of these[..]

Bacilli are an extremely diverse group of bacteria that include both the causative agent of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) as well as several species that synthesize important antibiotics. Bacilli are rod-shaped, Gram-positive, sporulating, aerobes or facultative anaerobes. Bacilli exhibit an array of physiologic abilities that allow them to live in a wide range of habitats, including many extreme habitats such as desert sands, hot springs, and Arctic soils. Species in the genus Bacillus can be thermophilic, psychrophilic, acidophilic, alkaliphilic, halotolerant, or halophilic and are capable of growing at pH values, temperatures, and salt concentrations where few other organisms can survive (Ref.1, 2 and 4). Due to the metabolic diversity in the genus Bacillus, Bacilli[..]

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative, non-sporing, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, closely related to Rhizobium which forms nitrogen-fixing nodules on clover and other leguminous plants. A. tumefaciens causes crown gall disease of a wide range of dicotyledonous plants, especially members of the rose family such as apple, pear, peach, cherry, almond, raspberry and roses. Basically, the bacterium transfers part of its DNA to the plant, and this DNA integrates into the plant’s genome, causing the production of tumors and associated changes in plant metabolism. The unique mode of action of A. tumefaciens has enabled this bacterium to be used as a tool in plant breeding. In natural conditions, the motile cells of A. tumefaciens are attracted to wound sites by[..]

Azoarcus sp. is associated with microbial degradation of aromatic and other refractory compounds, including hydrocarbons in anoxic waters and soils. Strain EbN1 is an aromatic-degrading bacteria found in freshwater and soil habitats. A unique property of strain EbN1 is its capacity to degrade toluene and ethylbenzene via two different, strictly anaerobic pathways. The absence of nitrogen fixation and specific interaction with plants separates EbN1 ecophysiologically from the closely related nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts of the Azoarcus cluster (Ref.1). A key step in peptidoglycan layer assembly and deposition in the cell wall of Azoarcus is the subsequent enzymic cross-linking of one peptidoglycan strand to an adjacent one in cell wall growth. D-Alanine is a central[..]

Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, facultative anaerobic rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occurs ubiquitously in soil and in many raw and processed foods such as rice, milk and dairy products, spices, and vegetables. Many strains of B. cereus are able to produce toxins and cause distinct types of food poisoning. B. cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. cereus ATCC 10987, a non-lethal dairy isolate in the same genetic subgroup as B. anthracis  (Ref.1&2).The cell wall of these[..]

Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, facultative anaerobic rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occurs ubiquitously in soil and in many raw and processed foods such as rice, milk and dairy products, spices, and vegetables. Many strains of B. cereus are able to produce toxins and cause distinct types of food poisoning. B. cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. cereus ATCC 14579, a non-lethal dairy isolate in the same genetic subgroup as B. anthracis  (Ref.1&2).The cell wall of these[..]

In humans, Lysine is an essential amino acid, and there is no Lysine biosynthetic machinery. However, humans do degrade Lysine. Lysine is incorporated to Collagen, one of the most important components of Connective tissue and its supply is therefore required during embryonic development and early childhood (Ref.1). It is also important for Carnitine Synthesis. The main catabolic pathway for Lysine, via Saccharopine (e-N-(L-Glutaryl-2)-L-lysine), is a mitochondrial pathway leading to the formation of Acetyl-CoA (Acetyl-Coenzyme-A). Another Lysine degradation mechanism that is the Peroxisomal Pathway, via Pipecolic Acid is of less physiological importance and is mainly active in brain. The existence of two minor pathways for Lysine degradation, the Acetyl-lysine[..]

PC (Phosphatidylcholine) is the most abundant Phospholipid in the yeast S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and the major Phospholipid present in eucaryotic cell membranes. It serves as a major structural component of cellular membranes and as a source of several lipid messengers. There are two pathways for PC synthesis in yeast, the CDP-Choline (Cytidine Diphosphate-Choline) pathway (a part of Kennedy Pathway) and the CDP-DAG (Cytidine Diphosphate-Diacylglycerol). Both pathways function to synthesize PC in wild-type cells (Ref.1). The CDP-DAG pathway is used primarily by cells in the absence of exogenous Choline. The PC synthesized by this pathway is constantly metabolized to free Choline and PA (Phosphatidate/Phosphatidic Acid) via the reaction catalyzed[..]

Phospholipids are key molecules that contribute to the structural definition of cells and participate in the regulation of cellular processes. The major Phospholipids which occur in the membranes of mitotically growing S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells are PC (Phosphatidylcholine), PE (Phosphatidylethanolamine), PI/PtdIns (Phosphatidylinositol) and PS (Phosphatidylserine). Mitochondrial membranes contain PG (Phosphatidylglycerol) and CL (Cardiolipin/Diphosphatidylglycerol). Phospholipid biosynthesis is a complex process that contains a number of branch points. PS, PE and PC are synthesized from PA (Phosphatidate/Phosphatidic Acid) by the CDP-DAG (Cytidine Diphosphate-Diacylglycerol) pathway, while PE and PC are synthesized by the Kennedy (CDP-Choline[..]

Displaying 241 to 252 (of 291 pathways)
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