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Pathways

Metabolic Pathways

Displaying 85 to 96 (of 291 pathways)

Methylococcus capsulatus is an obligate, Gram-negative methanotroph. It generally use the greenhouse gas Methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated Methane to the atmosphere. Methylococcus capsulatus is the first complete genome sequence reported from an obligate methanotroph. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase) and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. The existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on[..]

The amino-acid derived polyamines have long been associated with cell growth and cancer, and specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes regulate polyamine metabolism. Polyamines are organic cations that are derived from amino acids and occur in all organisms. Putrescine, Spermidine and Spermine are the main polyamines found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Polyamines are essential for the growth and function of normal cells. They interact with various macromolecules, both electrostatically and covalently and, as a consequence, have a variety of cellular effects. At physiological pH, polyamines carry a positive charge on each nitrogen atom and it has been suggested that polyamines are simply ‘supercations’, equivalent to one or two calcium or magnesium[..]

Amino acids are not only the building blocks of proteins, but also serve as precursors for other important plant metabolites and constitute an essential part of human and animal diets. The biosynthesis and degradation of the twenty standard Amino acids represent the complexity and ingenuity of metabolism at its most astounding. Plants are able to generate all 20 Amino acids necessary for protein synthesis by themselves. They do even synthesize some more Amino acids.  Glycine and Serine are two Interconvertible Amino acids that play an important role in C1 metabolism. Glycine is the simplest Amino acid and is the only Amino acid that is not optically active. On a molar basis, Glycine is the second most common Amino acid found in proteins and enzymes being[..]

Glycine and Serine are two non-essential amino acids in humans, which have important roles in the Central Nervous System. Serine, a constituent of brain proteins and nerve coverings, is important in various processes like dendritic outgrowth, formation of cell membranes, metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines, Myelin formation and muscle synthesis, synthesis of nucleotides and neuroactive amino acids like D-Serine and Glycine. As a building block of proteins and membrane lipids, it is required for metabolism of fats, cell and tissue growth and in the immune system, it assists in the production of immunoglobulins/antibodies. Serine derivatives (e.g. Ethanolamine) are important components of the membrane phospholipids, whereas Glycine is the simplest, optically inactive,[..]

Glycine and Serine are two non-essential neurotrophic amino acids that play an essential role in neuronal development and function in M. musculus (Mus musculus). They share similar neurotrophic effects in promoting neuronal survival and differentiation of sensory ganglia, hippocampal neurons, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. In M. musculus, interplay between Glycine and Serine in a co-existence with L-Threonine represent a major metabolic crossroad that links several other biological pathways of immense importance. L-Serine serves as a building block of proteins, and is of vital importance for the syntheses of L-Cysteine, Phosphatidyl-L-Serine, nucleotides, and the neuromodulators D-Serine and Glycine (Ref.1). L-Serine is a precursor for the synthesis of membrane[..]

Glycine and Serine are two interconvertible non-essential amino acids found abundantly in almost all cell types. They serve as active ligands for many metabolic pathways where they aid in the synthesis of other essential metabolites, such as Glycogen, Glyoxylate and Pyruvate, which are of immense importance for many cellular and biological processes. The metabolic pathway that correlates Glycine and Serine in R. norvegicus (Rattus norvegicus) has a relation with metabolism of the indispensable amino acid Threonine. Mammalian cells normally do not possess all the necessary enzymes for the transamination of Threonine, the entrance of which into some catabolic pathways represents its irrevocable loss for the purposes of protein synthesis. Oxidation of Threonine, which is[..]

Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative, fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. It causes citrus variegated chlorosis-a serious disease of orange trees. It is responsible for pathogenicity and virulence involving toxins, antibiotics and ion sequestration systems (Ref.1 & 2). X. fastidiosa Temecula-1 is 2.52MB. It is isolated from a naturally infected grapevine with Pierce's disease in a wine-grape-growing region of California. This disease is characterized by wilted, shriveled, raisin-like fruits and scorched leaves that detach, leaving bare petioles attached to the canes. This devastating disease is a major threat to the viability of the California wine industry (Ref.3).Glutathione is a tripeptide present in[..]

Yersinia sp. is responsible for disease syndromes ranging from gastroenteritis to plague. Y. pestis is categorized into three subtypes or biovars; Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis, each associated with a major pandemic. Y. pestis strain CO92 belongs to biovar Orientalis that are responsible for the current pandemic (modern plague). Glutathione is a tripeptide present in Yersinia sp., which is composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine, and has numerous important functions within cells. The tripeptide is the thiol compound, present in the highest concentration in all types of cells.Glutathione metabolism in Y. pestis involves both the synthesis of Glutathione and its catabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis starts from an L-Amino acid, which in presence of the enzyme[..]

Glutathione is a tripeptide present in Yersinia sp., which is composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine, and has numerous important functions within cells. Yersinia sp. is responsible for disease syndromes ranging from gastroenteritis to plague. Y. pestis is categorized into three subtypes or biovars; Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, each associated with a major pandemic. The strain Y. pestis KIM belongs to biovar Mediaevalis and is associated with the second pandemic, including the Black Death.Glutathione metabolism in Y. pestis involves both the synthesis of Glutathione and its catabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis starts from an L-Amino acid, which in presence of the enzyme Gamma-GT (Gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase) forms L-Gamma-Glutamyl-L-Amino acid and[..]

Glutathione is a tripeptide present in Yersinia sp., which is composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine, and has numerous important functions within cells. Yersinia sp. is responsible for disease syndromes ranging from gastroenteritis to plague. Y. pestis is categorized into three subtypes or biovars; Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis, each associated with a major pandemic.Glutathione metabolism in Y. pestis involves both the synthesis of Glutathione and its catabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis starts from an L-Amino acid, from which L-Gamma-Glutamyl-L-Amino acid and L-Cysteinylglycine is formed inside the cell. PepN (Aminopeptidase-N) catalyzes the reaction in which, L-Cysteineglycine produces Glycine and the product participates in Cyanoamino acid metabolism.[..]

Yersinia sp. is responsible for disease syndromes ranging from gastroenteritis to plague. Y. pestis is categorized into three subtypes or biovars; Antiqua, Mediaevalis, and Orientalis, each associated with a major pandemic. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is the least common of the three main Yersinia species to cause infections in humans. It is primarily a zoonotic infection with variable hosts, including domestic and sylvatic animals. The condition has been associated with food-borne infection, including a few outbreaks. The organism primarily leads to a gastroenteritis (diarrheal component uncharacteristic) characterized by a self-limited mesenteric lymphadenitis mimicking appendicitis. Postinfectious complications include erythema nodosum and reactive arthritis. Thus,[..]

Pseudomonas putida is a microorganism of putrefaction. This Gram-negative bacterium has rod-shaped cell with multitrichous flagella. It is a unique soil microorganism, which can resist the adverse effects of organic solvents. The bacterium is capable of decontaminating organic substances including solvents, such as toluene, one of the components of gasoline. It is an example of an organism that can be used to carry out bioremediation. It is most commonly found in various environments such as various consumer products including paints and solvents. It is also popular as one of safe and effective pesticidal microorganisms. P. putida is a metabolically versatile saprophytic soil bacterium that has been certified as a biosafety host for the cloning of foreign genes. The[..]

Displaying 85 to 96 (of 291 pathways)
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