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Metabolic Pathways

Displaying 97 to 108 (of 289 pathways)

Ralstonia solanacearum is a Gram-negative bacterium. It is a widely distributed and economically important, devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen that invades the roots of diverse plant hosts from the soil and aggressively colonizes the xylem vessels, causing a lethal wilting known as ‘Bacterial Wilt Disease’. It has a very wide host range and is well-adapted to life in the soil, where it waits for a host plant to inhabit. Ralstonia uses dozens of genes to produce attachment factors and inject proteins into the host through a secretion system. R. solanacearum Strain GMI1000 has a 5.8-megabase genome, which encodes many proteins potentially associated with a role in pathogenicity (Ref.1).Glutathione is a tripeptide, composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine, and[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. Glutathione is composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine that has numerous important functions within cells. The tripeptide Glutathione is part of an integrated antioxidant system that protects cells and tissues from oxidative damage. Oxidative stress can result from exposure to excessive amounts of endogenous and exogenous electrophiles (Ref.1). Glutathione exists in two forms. The antioxidant "reduced Glutathione" tripeptide is conventionally called Glutathione and abbreviated GSH; the oxidized form is a sulfur-sulfur linked[..]

Streptomycetes are Gram-positive soil microorganisms that produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites, many of which have potent biological activities. They produce more than half of the known biologically active microbial products, including many commercially important antibiotics, immunosuppressive compounds, animal health products, and agrochemicals. They also produce various enzymes that are commercially and academically valuable. This vast reservoir of diverse products makes Streptomyces one of the most important industrial microbial genera. S. avermitilis produces avermectins, a series of eight distinct, but closely related, macrocyclic lactones having potent anthelmintic and insecticidal activity, which are used commercially for broad-spectrum parasite[..]

Glutathione (L-G-Glutamyl-L-Cysteinylglycine, GSH) is a thiol tripeptide present in most living cells, from micro-organisms to human beings. It plays numerous metabolic roles, such as bioreduction, protection against oxidative stress, detoxification of endogenous toxic metabolites and xenobiotics, transport and enzymic catalysis. Yeast can use Glutathione as an endogenous sulphur source. In the presence of sulphate, excess sulphur can be incorporated into Glutathione and later mobilized by the cells. Glutathione stored in the yeast vacuole can also serve as an alternative nitrogen source during nitrogen starvation. Cellular Glutathione is implicated in tolerance to potentially toxic metalloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Also Glutathione plays a role on cellular[..]

Streptomyces coelicolor is a representative of the group of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria responsible for producing most natural antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. These microbes are notable for their production of pharmaceutically useful compound including anti-tumour agents, immunosupressants and over two-thirds of all natural antibiotics currently available. S. coelicolor has a unique bacteriophage resistance system, designed to ward of the temperate bacteriophage (Ref.1 & 2).Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in all organisms including microorganisms like Streptomyces. It is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine, and has numerous important functions within[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. It cannot enter most cells directly and therefore must be made available inside the cell from its three constituent amino acids: Glycine, Glutamate and Cysteine. The rate at which glutathione can be made depends on the availability of Cysteine, which is relatively scarce in foodstuffs. Furthermore, the Cysteine molecule has a sulfur-containing portion which gives the whole Glutathione molecule its ‘biochemical activity’. Cysteine can also enter the Glutathione metabolism through several other metabolic pathways like Cysteine,[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. It cannot enter most cells directly and therefore must be made available inside the cell from its three constituent amino acids: Glycine, Glutamate and Cysteine. The rate at which glutathione can be made depends on the availability of Cysteine, which is relatively scarce in foodstuffs. Furthermore, the Cysteine molecule has a sulfur-containing portion which gives the whole Glutathione molecule its ‘biochemical activity’. Cysteine can also enter the Glutathione metabolism through several other metabolic pathways like Cysteine,[..]

Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-sporulating, facultative anaerobic bacterium that causes Dysentery or Shigellosis in man. Shigella is highly invasive in the colon and the rectum, and is able to proliferate in the host cell cytoplasm, triggering an inflammatory reaction. The strain S. flexneri 2457T harbors four plasmids, which remains to be completed (Ref.1 & 2). Glutathione metabolism in Shigella occurs within cells in two closely linked, enzymatically controlled reactions that utilize ATP and draw on nonessential amino acids as substrates. Glutathione is a tripeptide, composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine, and has numerous important functions within the bacterial cell. This tripeptide is specifically a thiol compound, present in the highest concentration[..]

Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-sporulating, facultative anaerobic bacterium that causes Dysentery or Shigellosis in man. Shigella is highly invasive in the colon and the rectum, and is able to proliferate in the host cell cytoplasm, triggering an inflammatory reaction. S. flexneri 2a strain, 301 has been recently sequenced (Ref.1 & 2). Glutathione metabolism in Shigella occurs within cells in two closely linked, enzymatically controlled reactions that utilize ATP and draw on nonessential amino acids as substrates. Glutathione is a tripeptide, composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine, and has numerous important functions within the bacterial cell. This tripeptide is specifically a thiol compound, present in the highest concentration in all types of cells.During[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine that has numerous important functions within cells. Glutathione is homeostatically controlled, both inside the cell and outside. It often attains millimolar levels inside cells, which makes it one of the most highly concentrated intracellular antioxidants. Glutathione exists in two forms. The antioxidant "reduced Glutathione" tripeptide is conventionally called Glutathione and abbreviated Gsh; the oxidized form is a sulfur-sulfur linked compound, known as[..]

Shewanella oneidensis is a facultative aerobic Gram-negative bacterium. It uses oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor during aerobic respiration, but during anaerobic conditions, S. oneidensis undertakes respiration by reducing alternative terminal electron acceptors such as oxidized metals, fumarate, nitrate etc. The microbe can directly reduce both uranium and chromium from the dissolved liquid state. Such abilities facilitate the removal of dilute metal pollutants in both contained-storage and natural sites. Additionally S. oneidensis immobilizes toxic metals through the formation of insoluble metal sulfides. Thus, the bacterium is an important model organism for bioremediation studies because of its diverse respiratory capabilities, conferred in part by[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. It has been assigned several cellular functions, including protection against oxidative damage, maintenance of a reducing cellular thiol-disulfide balance, electron donation for a number of enzymes, protection of protein sulfhydryls from irreversible oxidation, and detoxification of foreign compounds. Glutathione is synthesized enzymatically from its constituent amino acids in two consecutive reactions. GSA1 (Glutathione Synthetase or GSH2) catalyzes the second step and it occurs in two different forms in Schizosaccharomyces[..]

Displaying 97 to 108 (of 289 pathways)
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