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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 109 to 120 (of 518 pathways)

Cellular Lipid homeostasis in mammalian cells is regulated through the end-product feedback regulation of Lipid synthesis by a family of membrane-bound transcription factors designated SREBPs (Sterol Regulatory Element–Binding Proteins) that control the flux of cellular metabolites into the major Lipid pathways. The mammalian cell continuously adjusts its Sterol content by regulating levels of key Sterol synthetic enzymes and levels of Lipoprotein receptors that mediate uptake of Cholesterol-laden particles. Control is brought about by SREBPs, which monitor the Sterol-regulated transcription and directly activate the expression of more than 30 relevant genes dedicated to the synthesis and uptake of Cholesterol, Fatty Acids, Triglycerides, and Phospholipids, as well[..]

MI(Myocardial infarction ) causes the loss of cardiac tissue and scar formation, which ultimately lead to heart failure. According to the World Health Organization, heart failure initiated by MI and coronary artery disease accounts for 29% of deaths worldwide. However, human heart tissue does not regenerate spontaneously, thus “regenerative medicine” represents a promising alternative treatment for MI. Cardiac tissue regenerative medicine involves cardiomyocyte regeneration, neovascularization, and paracrine cytokines, which have anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-remodeling effects. During the last decade, stem cells have become promising candidates for regenerative medicine not only because of their capacity of differentiation toward cardiomyocyte and[..]

ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are Pluripotent cells capable of differentiating into any cell type of the body. Only three species of Mammals have yielded long-term cultures of self-renewing ESCs- Mice, Monkeys, and Humans. Human ESCs are derived from Blastocysts, multicellular structures originating from four cleavages of fertilized oocytes. Isolated from the ICM (Inner Cell Mass) of Blastocysts, the ESCs retain properties of self-renewal and the potential to be committed and to differentiate toward most cell lineages. They are able to spontaneously give rise to different progenies of the three embryonic layers, namely, the Ectoderm, the Mesoderm and the Endoderm. The Pluripotency of ESCs has attracted great attention for their potential use in tissue and cell therapy.[..]

ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are a population of Pluripotent, Self-renewing cells which can proliferate indefinitely and contribute to the formation of basically all cell types in vitro and in vivo. The study of mammalian ESCs, especially Mouse ESCs, has provided valuable insights into early embryogenesis in mammals. Mouse ES cells are derived mainly from the ICM (Inner Cell Mass) of the Mouse Blastocyst embryos and retain this developmental identity even after prolonged culture in vitro. Both cell Extrinsic and Intrinsic factors regulate Mouse ESC Self-renewal and Pluripotency. Cell extrinsic factors include LIF (Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor) and BMP (Bone Morphogenic Protein), which signal through STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) and SMAD (Sma[..]

ESCs (Embryonic stem cells) are Pluripotent cells derived from the ICM (Inner Cell Mass) of Blastocyst-stage embryos. These cells have two distinctive properties: an unlimited capacity for Self-renewal and Pluripotency. The capability for Self-renewal and the Pluripotency of ESCs seem to be under the control of multiple transcriptional factors, most common among them being Nanog (Nanog homeobox), Oct4 (Octamer Binding Transcription Factor-4) and SOX2 (SRY (Sex Determining Region-Y) Box-2). Functions of these transcription factors depend on the stage of development of a Pluripotent cell, indicating that these factors function in combination with other processes. The activity of these transcription factors also depends on the[..]

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of producing virtually all cell types in our body. They are characterized by the ability to Self-renew and maintain Pluripotency. For proper developmental outcome, ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) must tightly regulate their differentiation status. Hundreds of genes have been identified, including several transcription factors, which have expression patterns tightly correlated with  ESC  differentiation. Very low number of transcription factors is responsible for regulating the development of an entire organism. These transcription factors form multiprotein complexes on DNA, thereby orchestrating the correct temporal–spatial expression of developmental genes. The process leads to the establishment of[..]

Cardiogenesis is the formation of new heart tissue from embryonic, postnatal, or adult multipotent cardiovascular progenitor cells. Cardiogenesis in vertebrate is a complex process, where various genetic and epigenetic factors play crucial role in driving the interaction between different structures and diverse cell types. Cardiomyocytes are the main cell type found in the heart that are responsible for the contraction of the chambers and efficient blood flow throughout the body (Ref.1 and 2). Multiple transcription factors and extracellular growth factors specify the Cardiac lineage in mesodermal progenitor cells. The earliest expressed transcription factors that initiate Cardiac fate are the homeobox transcription factor NKX2.5 (NK2 Transcription Factor Related[..]

In the life cycle of Plasmodium spp, Erythrocytic stage is very important involving four stages viz. Merozoite stage, ring stage, Trophozoite stage and Schizont stage. On being released from the hepatocytes, the Merozoites enter the bloodstream prior to infecting red blood cells. They use the Apicomplexan invasion organelles to recognize and enter the host erythrocyte. The parasite first binds to the erythrocyte in a random orientation. It then reorients such that the apical complex is in proximity to the erythrocyte membrane. A tight junction is formed between the parasite and erythrocyte. As it enters the red blood cell, the parasite forms a parasitophorous vesicle, to allow for its development inside the erythrocyte. After invading the erythrocyte, the parasite[..]

As research into tumour immunology continues at an incredible pace, a considerable amount of work is aimed at exploring the mechanisms that underlie the immunological recognition and elimination of cancer and the downstream consequences of these processes. The capacity of the immune system for recognition is not limited solely to the classic models of self versus pathogen or self versus non-self but encompasses the more-subtle differences that exist between self and transformed self. This conclusion provides the argument for reconsidering the largely discarded hypothesis of cancer immunosurveillance. Immune system attempts to constrain tumour growth, but sometimes tumour cells might escape or attenuate this immune pressure, similar to the way in which these cells[..]

Cell-fate decisions are controlled typically by conserved receptors that interact with co-evolved ligands. Therefore, the lineage-specific differentiation of immature CD4+CD8+ T cells into CD4+ or CD8+ mature T cells is unusual in that it is regulated by clonally expressed, somatically generated T-cell receptors (TCRs) of unpredictable fine specificity. Each mature T cell generally retains expression of the co-receptor molecule (CD4 or CD8) that has an MHC-binding property that matches that of its TCR. Two models were proposed initially to explain this remarkable outcome--'instruction' of lineage choice by initial signalling events or 'selection' after a stochastic fate decision that limits further development to cells with coordinated TCR and co-receptor[..]

MDSCs (Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells) are recently been recognized as critical mediators of tumor progression in numerous solid tumours through their inhibition of tumor-specific immune responses. These cells are increased in numerous pathologic conditions, including infections, inflammatory diseases, graft-versus-host disease, traumatic stress, and neoplastic diseases. MDSCs inhibit not only activation of T cells by anti-CD3 and super antigen, but also antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. The mechanisms of MDSC immunosuppression are diverse, it includes up-regulation of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), NO (Nitric Oxide), and L-Arginine metabolism. It also facilitates tumour-induced immune suppression and tumour progression by inducing the[..]

Immune cells in the tumour microenvironment not only fail to mount an effective anti-tumour immune response, but also interact intimately with the transformed cells to promote oncogenesis actively.  STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) proteins act as a mediator of cytokine receptor signaling. This protein plays a role in transmitting the signals of growth factor receptors and is both cytoplasmic signaling molecules and nuclear transcription factors that activate diverse genes. In normal cells, STAT activation is transient and tightly regulated. While STAT3 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3)   acts as a point of convergence for numerous oncogenic signalling pathways, and constitutively remain active both in tumour[..]

Displaying 109 to 120 (of 518 pathways)


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