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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 217 to 228 (of 533 pathways)

Huntington disease is an Autosomally Dominant degenerative disorder resulting from expansion (>37 units) of a polyglutamine repeats in Huntingtin, a 350-kDa protein of unknown function. The polyglutamine repeat is localized in the N-terminal region of Huntingtin and is encoded by exon1 of the HD or Htt (Huntingtin) gene. Huntington disease is characterized by uncontrolled movements, personality changes, and dementia and causes the death of patients within 10–20 years after the appearance of the first symptoms. Huntingtin is highly expressed in the brain, and particularly enriched in Cerebral Cortex and Striatum. It is a cytoplasmic protein that is essential during development for Gastrulation and Neurogenesis, and it is important for Neuronal survival in the[..]

HD (Huntington's disease) is an autosomal dominant monogenic neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the HTT (huntingtin) gene, resulting in a mHTT (mutant HTT) protein carrying an expanded polyQ (polyglutamine) repeat on exon1. HD is characterised primarily by motor disturbances, but is commonly accompanied by cognitive impairments and psychiatric abnormalities. Progressive striatal neurodegeneration is a hallmark of HD that can be identified prior to motor symptom onset, however there is evidence for widespread neuropathology in HD brain, including degeneration of cortical and subcortical structures. mHTT neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs) can be found throughout vulnerable neuronal populations in HD brain (Ref.1).Huntingtin can also[..]

Epithelial continuity depends on a family of small, yet abundant, secreted proteins the TFFs (Trefoil Factors). TFFs are considered as 'Rapid Response' agents to mucosal injury; with up-regulation of expression in the early stages of mucosal repair. These peptides are involved in mucosal maintenance and repair through motogenic and anti-apoptotic activities. They also function as scatter factors, pro-invasive and angiogenic agents. TFFs are connected with multiple oncogenic pathways. As a consequence, the TFF signaling pathways serve as potential targets in the control of chronic inflammation and progression of human solid tumors (Ref.1 & 2). The TFFs constitute a family of small regulatory gastric peptides consisting of three members, TFF1/pS2[..]

CNTF (Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor) is a protein expressed in glial cells, which stimulates gene expression and cell survival and differentiation in a variety of neuronal cell populations and acts as a lesion factor involved in the prevention of nerve degeneration after injury. It is a member of the IL6ST (130-kDa Glycoprotein) cytokine family along with structurally related hemato- and neuropoietic cytokines IL-6 (Interleukin-6), IL-11 (Interleukin-11), LIF (Leukemia Inhibitory Factor), OSM (OncoSOAT1in M), CT-1 (Cardiotrophin-1), Leptin and CLC (Cardiotrophin-Like Cytokine). The actions of CNTF are mediated, in part by CNTFR-Alpha (CNTF-specific Receptor). Upon translation, the C-terminus of CNTFR-Alpha is cleaved. Mature CNTFR-Alpha has no transmembrane or cytosolic[..]

Muscular dystrophy is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement. This group of diseases has three features in common: they are hereditary, they are progressive and each causes a characteristic, selective pattern of weakness. Some forms of MD first appear in infancy or childhood, but others may not appear until middle age or later. Although the actual cause of this disorder is unknown, it is known that a gene defect is responsible for the onset. Even though females are known to carry the defective gene they remain unaffected. The recessive gene that is responsible is carried on the X-chromosome and while females who are carriers have a normal[..]

The development of the NMJ (Neuromuscular Junction) is triggered by agrin, a signaling factor that is deposited by the nerve terminal at the site of contact with the muscle cell. Motor neuron-derived agrin induces many aspects of synaptic differentiation and is required for the postsynaptic localization of many synapse-specific basal lamina, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic proteins. In addition, agrin is sufficient to induce aggregation of these synaptic proteins in muscle cells in vitro, or at ectopic sites on muscle fibers in vivo. Most notably, agrin induces a rapid aggregation of AChR (Acetylcholine Receptors), initially through a redistribution of preexisting receptors in the muscle membrane. This agrin-induced clustering of the neurotransmitter receptor allows[..]

Gastrin is the primary hormone that induces gastric acid secretion. In humans, the gene encoding for gastrin is located on chromosome 17q21. This hormone is produced by the G-cells of the antrum of stomach as preprogastrin, which comprises of 101 amino acids and is cleaved between Ala-21 and Ser-22 to yield progastrin.Gastrin interacts with the membrane-bound G-protein coupled cholecystokinin receptor group consisting of CCKAR(Cholecystokinin A receptor) and CCKBR(Cholecystokinin B receptor). CCKAR possesses high affinity for cholecystokinin and has a negligible affinity for gastrin. However, CCKBR has a high affinity for gastrin and their carboxyl amidated analogues. CCKBR is expressed in the brain, smooth muscle cells, and parietal cells.CCKBR is a member of the[..]

The HTLV-1(human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) is the etiological agent of ATL(adult T-cell leukemia). HTLV-1 Tax has been shown to have a prosurvival role in infected T cells by enhancing expression of the BCL-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins.After intensive studies, evidence has shown that the viral protein Tax has a key role in promoting viral spread and it is also one of the essential proteins involved in oncogenesis through multiple mechanisms, for example, promoting G1–S progression, enhancing the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, inducing DNA hyper-replication, decreasing DNA repair, constitutive activation of NF-KappaB and suppression of apoptosis. Its ability to modulate the expression and function of many cellular genes is reasoned to be a major contributory[..]

The retroviral life cycle begins in the nucleus of an infected cell. At this stage of the life cycle the retroviral genome is a DNA element integrated into and covalently attached to the DNA of the host cell. Deltaretroviruses are complex viruses characterized by “C”-Type morphology. The most famous examples are the HTLV1 (Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-1), HTLV2 and the BLV (Bovine Leukemia Virus). HTLV1 is associated with a neurologic degenerative disorder known as TSP (Tropical Spastic Paraparesis) or, more commonly with HAM (HTLV1-Associated Myelopathy). HTLV1 spread occurs via semen, needles, breast milk and blood (Ref.1 & 2). There is no present licensed vaccine against HTLV1. Attachment of the virus occurs via SU (Surface Glycoprotein) peplomer.[..]

IL-2 (Interleukin-2) is a biological response modifier (cytokine), which stimulates the growth, proliferation and subsequent differentiation of disease-fighting blood cells, like T-Cells, B-Cells, NK (Natural Killer) cells, monocytes, macrophages, and oligodendrocytes. It is a powerful immunoregulatory lymphokine that was originally described as "T-Cell growth factor" and is secreted primarily by Antigen-activated T-Cells. Human IL-2 is a 133-amino acid polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15-18 kDa. In an autocrine fashion, the Antigen-primed THC (T Helper Cell) secretes IL-2, stimulating itself as well as other neighboring Antigen-primed T-Cells to proliferate (T-Cell activation and proliferation). Growing T-cells in long term culture require IL-2 as a[..]

TREMs (Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells) are a family of recently discovered receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily, expressed on various cells of the myeloid lineage, which play important roles in innate immune responses, such as to activate inflammatory responses and to contribute to septic shock in response to microbial-mediated infections (Ref.1). During the onset of an infection, the host must launch a rapid innate response to control pathogen proliferation and spread the same until the adaptive response of specific T- and B-Cells has fully developed. This first line of defence is provided by the coordinate action of several effector cell types, including the phagocytes. These cells express a large array of cell-surface receptors, some of which[..]

The Plasmodium Merozoite is an ovoid cell and measures approximately 1.5 micron in length and 1 micron in width. The apical end of the Merozoite is a truncated cone-shaped projection demarcated by the polar rings. At the anterior end of the Merozoite are present three types of membrane-bound organelles, namely, Rhoptries (two prominent pear-shaped, 570 X330 nm), micronemes (ovoid bodies, 100 X40 nm), and dense granules (spheroid vesicles, 140 X120 nm). The contents of these organelles play a role in the binding and entry of the Merozoite into the host cells. Extracellular Merozoites are intrinsically short-lived and must rapidly invade a new host erythrocyte (Ref.1). The Merozoite is surrounded by a trilaminar pellicle that is composed of a plasma membrane and two[..]

Displaying 217 to 228 (of 533 pathways)


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