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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 157 to 168 (of 537 pathways)

Steroid hormones are crucial substances for the proper functioning of the body. They mediate a wide variety of vital physiological functions ranging from anti-inflammatory agents to regulating events during pregnancy. Typically, endocrinologists classify steroid hormones into five major groups, based primarily on the receptor to which they bind, and the physiological outcomes: (i)Glucocorticoids: Anti-Stress Hormones which include cortisol, (ii)Mineralocorticoids: major Ion Uptake Regulators which include aldosterones, (iii)Androgens: Primarily male Sex Hormones such as Androstenedione and Testosterone, (iv)Estrogens: Female Sex Hormones including Estrodiol and Estrone and (v)Progestogens: progestational hormones, such as Progesterone. The steroid hormones are[..]

Somatostatin is a widely distributed peptide hormone that plays an important inhibitory role in several biological processes, including neurotransmission, exocrine and endocrine secretions, and cell proliferation (Ref.1). Somatostatin acts via a family of five GPCRs (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) SSTR1-SSTR5 (Somatostatin Receptors) that are variably expressed throughout numerous tissues ranging from the CNS (Central Nervous System) to the Endocrine and Immune Systems. Somatostatin antiproliferative action results either from inhibition of trophic or growth factors secretion or from interference with the normal Cell Cycle Progression. Among the five Somatostatin receptors, SSTR2 (Somatostatin Receptor-2) plays a critical role in the negative control of normal and Tumor[..]

Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, is the major cause of morbidity and mortality from CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in much of the world’s population. The disease involves the formation of Plaques in arterial walls that narrow the arterial passage, restricting blood flow and increasing the risk of occlusion of blood flow by a myocardial infarction. There is now a consensus that Atherosclerosis represents a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in the vascular wall. The Oxidative Modification hypothesis predicts LDL (Low-Density Lipoproteins) oxidation as an early event in Atherosclerosis, and oxidized LDL as one of the important contributors of Atherogenesis (Ref.1, 2 &[..]

The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors. Malignant Liver Tumors fall into two types: Primary and Metastatic. While Primary Liver tumors such as HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma) originate in the liver itself, Metastatic or Secondary Liver Tumors commpnly known as “Liver Metastases” are cancerous tumors that originate at sites remote from the liver and spread to the liver via the bloodstream. As filtration of blood is one of the main functions of Liver, cancer cells from other parts of the body have easy access to the Liver. It provides a fertile platform in which Metastases can establish, not only because of its rich, dual blood supply but also because of humoral factors that promote cell growth. Metastasis is the most common neoplasm in[..]

DRPLA (Dentatorubropallidoluysian Atrophy) is a Rare Neurodegenerative Disorder that usually is inherited in an Autosomal Dominant pattern. The Clinical symptoms are variable depending on the age of onset of the disease Myoclonus, Epilepsy, and Mental Retardation are the main symptoms in Juvenile Onset, whereas Cerebellar Ataxia, Choreoathetosis, and Dementia are seen in Adult Onset. Neuropathologically, a combined degeneration of the Dentatorubral and Pallidoluysian systems is a characteristic feature of DRPLA. The disease is caused by an expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding PolyQ (Polyglutamine) in the Atrophin-1 gene, on Chromosome 12 (Ref.1).Atrophin-1, the DRPLA gene product, encodes a Hydrophilic 1184-amino acid protein with several simple repetitive[..]

C. neoformans (Cryptococcus neoformans) is an encapsulated yeast-like basidiomycetous fungus and a significant human pathogen responsible for fungal meningoencephalitis in immune-compromised individuals.  It has emerged as a model organism to study the molecular mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis (Ref.1). Desiccated yeast cells or basidiophores of C. neoformans when inhaled can stay in the alveoli of the host causing primary lung infection. On crossing the blood–brain barrier (BBB), these fungal cells can interfere with the brain’s ability to reabsorb cerebrospinal fluid, causing meningo-cephalitis (Ref.2). C. neoformans is generally classified into four serotypes (A to D) with different pathogenic characteristics during host infection. Most commonly[..]

Ustilago maydis (U.maydis) belongs to the phyla Basidiomycetes (smut fungi) that infects maize. Dimorphism is linked to pathogenicity in U.maydis, where the budding haploid cells are saprobic in nature that converts to a dikaryotic filamentous pathogenic form after mating. cAMP signaling pathway regulates the dimorphic transition in U.maydis (Ref.1 and 2). Dimorphism process is regulated by two unlinked mating type loci, a and b. The a locus, a1 and a2, encodes a pheromone based precursors MFA1 and MFA2 and their receptors PRA1 and PRA2, whereas b locus codes for two homeodomain proteins, bE and bW (Ref.3).cAMP and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are responsible for the transcription of the a and b gene. The major components of the cAMP-dependent[..]

Magnaporthe grisea (M.grisea) is a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes rice blast which is a serious disease of rice plant. It is also known as rice blast fungus. M. grisea is a member of cryptic species complex that contains at least two species, M. grisea and Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae). Strains isolated from Digitaria (e.g. crabgrass and finger-grass) have been defined as M. grisea, whereas members isolated from rice and other hosts have been renamed as M. oryzae (Ref.1). Several signalling pathways including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are critical mediators of appressorium development in the rice blast fungus. Other functions include invasive growth, surface recognition, cell wall integrity and[..]

Atherosclerosis, the pathological basis of CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) and Ischemic Stroke, is the commonest cause of death and disability in the western world. Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, highly complex disease with numerous aetiologies simultaneously and sequentially collaborating in subtle ways to affect lesion development, progression and maturation to an advanced, disease-provoking entity (Ref.1). The lesion, or Atheroma, is an inflammatory site composed of a necrotic lipid-rich core, modified vascular endothelium, SMCs (Smooth Muscle Cells), foamy macrophages, lymphocytes and a variety of inflammatory mediators. Inflammation is the key event in Atherosclerotic Plaque fissuring and rupture, causing adverse clinical events. A variety of risk factors are[..]

JAs (Jasmonates) are potent Lipid Regulators of Defense gene expression and act in development necessary for fertility. The Jasmonate Pathway performs critical roles in Plant Defense, Development, and Metabolism. Upon activation of plant immunity, several signaling events are initiated along with production of lipids and lipid related molecules including Phospholipids, sterols, sphingolipids, glycerolipids, oxylipins etc. Oxylipins are oxygenated fatty acids containing one or more oxygen atoms. Jasmonates are oxylipins formed by the enzymatic oxygenation unsaturated fatty acids. JAs include Jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (Ref.1 &2). Jasmonates are derived from oxygenated fatty acids via the octadecanoid pathway and characterized by[..]

In most eukaryotic organisms, guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) pathways play a critical role in extracellular environment sensing. The second messenger cyclic 3’-5’ adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is important in G-protein mediated glucose sensing.  In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), G-proteins produce cAMP via activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) in response to glucose detection (Ref.1 and 2).In S.pombe, either Glucose limitation or Nitrogen limitation results in a reduction in cAMP levels. cAMP levels decline rapidly in response to Glucose starvation, whereas cAMP levels decline more gradually in response to Nitrogen limitation, showing different levels of control for Carbon compared to Nitrogen source sensing.[..]

The ascomycete N.crassa (Neurospora crassa) is a heterothallic multicellular filamentous with perforated septa that has defined asexual and sexual cycles. It is generally used as model organism to study DNA methylation, mitochondrial protein import, circadian clock regulation and light sensing in eukaryotic organisms. N.crassa has two mating types, A and a. Under nutrient-rich conditions like Carbon, etc, N.crassa proliferates by the extension and branching of multinucleate vegetative hyphal cells to form a multicellular mycelium (Ref.1 and 2). In response to nutrient deprivation, desiccation and light, N.crassa initiates asexual conidiation. The major determinants regulating the onset of conidiation are the availability of Carbon source and light. The sexual cycle[..]

Displaying 157 to 168 (of 537 pathways)


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