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Pathways

Signaling Pathways

Displaying 181 to 192 (of 533 pathways)

Cytokinins are a major class of phytohormones that belong to the family of adenine derivatives and are considered as a key regulator of many important plant developmental processes including embryogenesis, seed germination and development, stimulated leaf expansion, organogenesis, vascular patterning, nodulation, circadian clocks, light responses, nutrient status,  transitions to flowering, immunity, senescence, and stress tolerance. The endogenous levels of cytokinins promote cell division, stem-cell specification, and chloroplast biogenesis whereas exogenously applied cytokinins in higher concentrations result in growth inhibition (Ref.1 and 2). Naturally occurring cytokinins are adenine derivatives that carry distinct substitutions like an Isoprene-derived[..]

Ethylene (C2H4) is a naturally occurring plant hormone involved in a large number of developmental processes including leaf abscission, ripening of Fruit, senescence, responses to Wound, seed germination, growth of adventitious roots under flooding conditions, epinasty stimulation, inhibition of shoot growth and stomatal closing and flowering (Ref. 1). Naturally occurring ethylene is present in trace amounts. It can also be produced either chemically through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons and biologically by almost all living organisms. In higher plants like Arabidopsis, a relatively simple metabolic pathway controls the biosynthesis of ethylene. Ethylene biosynthesis levels change in response to endogenous developmental cues as well as exogenous signals[..]

Ethylene (C2H4) is a naturally occurring plant hormone involved in a large number of developmental processes including leaf abscission, ripening of Fruit, senescence, responses to Wound, seed germination, growth of adventitious roots under flooding conditions, epinasty stimulation, inhibition of shoot growth and stomatal closing and flowering (Ref. 1). A combination of genetic, biochemical, and molecular approaches is uncovering ethylene signaling pathway in plants. Ethylene perception and response are mediated by a family of integral membrane receptors (ETRs) localized at the ER-Golgi network. The signaling takes place when the ethylene hormone binds to the ER-based ETR receptors that generally act as negative regulators of the ethylene signaling in the absence of[..]

The ability of the immune system to respond appropriately to foreign antigen is dependent on a delicate balance of activating and inhibitory signals. Although positive signaling is essential for the generation of effective immunity, counterbalancing the immune response by inhibitory pathways is equally important. Loss of inhibitory signaling is often associated with autoreactivity and unchecked inflammatory responses, illustrating the essential role these systems play in immune regulation (Ref.1). Pairing of activation and inhibition is therefore, necessary to modulate immune responses. The activation threshold of various cells in the immune system is tuned by immune inhibitory receptors. The inhibitory Fc (Crystalline Fragment) Receptor, Fc-Gamma-RIIB (Fc-Gamma[..]

Fcγ receptors are a family of glycoproteins expressed on the membrane of immune cells, and capable of binding the Fc portion of IgG antibody molecules. These receptors bind to various IgG subclasses with different affinities, and when crosslinked by multivalent antigen-antibody complexes, can induce different cellular responses. In humans, several activating receptors (FcγRI/CD64, FcγRIIa/CD32a and FcγRIIIa/CD16a), one inhibitory receptor (FcγRIIb/CD32b), and one glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked receptor, lacking a cytoplasmic tail (FcγRIIIb/CD16b) have been identified [Ref.1].All activating FcγR containing ITAM sequences signal in a similar way at least at the first signaling step. After crosslinking of activating[..]

Phagocytosis, defined as the cellular uptake of particulates (>0.5 m) within a plasma-membrane envelope, is closely related to and partly overlaps the endocytosis of soluble ligands by fluid-phase macropinocytic and receptor pathways. The uptake of exogenous particles (heterophagy) has features in common with autophagy, an endogenous process of sequestration and lysosomal disposal of damaged intracellular organelles. There is a spectrum of uptake mechanisms depending on the particle size, multiplicity of receptor-ligand interactions, and involvement of the cytoskeleton. FcRs bind to the constant (Fc portion) of IgG (Immunoglobulin G) or IgA antibodies. IgGs act as opsonins, molecules that render the particle they coat more susceptible to engulfment by the phagocytes.[..]

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an electromagnetic radiation that is shorter in wavelength than visible light but longer than X-rays.  It falls in the range of 100nm to 400nm and is the most important environmental carcinogen leading to the development of skin cancers. UVR is divided into at least three different categories based on wavelength that includes ultraviolet C (UVC; 100–280 nm), ultraviolet B (UVB; 280–320 nm) and ultraviolet A (UVA; 320–400nm). UVB can be directly absorbed by DNA molecules and thus causes UV-signature DNA damages. UVB promotes tumor growth through various signaling pathways.  (Ref.1). UVB unlike UVA, comprises only a small amount of the UVR from the sun at the surface of the Earth and it affects cells within the[..]

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an electromagnetic radiation that is shorter in wavelength than visible light but longer than X-rays.  It falls in the range of 100nm to 400nm and is the most important environmental carcinogen leading to the development of skin cancers. UVR is divided into at least three different categories based on wavelength that includes ultraviolet C (UVC; 100–280 nm), ultraviolet B (UVB; 280–320 nm) and ultraviolet A (UVA; 320–400nm).  90-95% of terrestrial radiation from the midday sun comprises UVA that can reach the dermal layer of human skin (Ref.1). UVA can cause DNA damage by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can induce skin cancer. UVA irradiation affects cellular signaling mechanisms and is known to[..]

In the yeast S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) various stimuli and developmental cues excite calcium (Ca2+) signals, which initiate appropriate downstream responses by changing the conformation of Ca2+ binding proteins. This is usually characterized by a sharp rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ followed by an exponential decrease. The cytosolic calcium homeostasis is maintained and regulated by Ca2+ transporters and sequestrators in the plasma and organelle membranes. Calcium can be either stored in the vacuoles or in secretory compartments of ER and Golgi where the vacuole acts as the main organelle for storage and sink, and the compartmentalization of Ca2+ in the ER/Golgi revealed a pathway for depleting and recycling intracellular calcium (Ref.1).Upon elevation of[..]

Ca2+ (Calcium) plays a major role in life and death within T-Cells. Elevation of intracellular free Ca2+ is one of the key triggering signals for T-Cell activation by antigen. The binding of antigen, MHC Class-II (Major Histocompatibility Complex Class-II), to the TCR-CD3 (T-Cell Antigen Receptor)-CD3 (CD3 Antigen) triggers the recruitment of a series of tyrosine kinases and substrates to the TCR/CD3/CD4 (CD4 Antigen) Complex, ultimately resulting in the phosphorylation and activation of PLC-Gamma1 (Phospholipase-C-Gamma1). PLC-Gamma1 cleaves PIP2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) in the plasma membrane to generate DAG (Diacylglycerol), which activates PKC (Protein Kinase-C) and IP3 (Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate), that causes entry of Ca2+ to cytosol from two[..]

Commonly referred to as slime mold,  Dictyostelium discoideum is a species of soil-dwelling amoeba belonging to the phylum Amoebozoa, It is a eukaryote that transitions from a collection of unicellular amoebae into a multicellular slug and then into a fruiting body within its lifetime. Bacteria are attracted to nutrients and repelled from toxic chemicals for their survival. Amoeba exibit movement in response to a chemical stimulus commonly termed as Chemotaxis. D. discoideum secretes the signal in form of cAMP, out of the cell, attracting other amoebae to migrate toward the source. i.e the amoeba dispensing the greatest amount of cAMP secretions. The secretion of the cAMP is then exhibited by all amoebae and is a call for them to begin aggregation. Chemotaxis is a[..]

Dictyostelia are a group of organisms that generally aggregate to become multicellular. There are approximately 120 known species of Dictyostelium. Dictyostelium discoideum belonging to the group 4, secrete cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) toact as a chemo attractant for aggregation. Dictyostelium is a simple eukaryotic model for the study of chemotaxis. Advantages of D. discoideum as a model organism include its genetic, biochemical and cell biological accessibility (Ref.1). The social amoebae D. discoideum has proven indispensable to elucidate signaling events that regulate Chemotaxis. In D. discoideum, cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3'-5'-Monophosphate), Folic Acid as well as factors from Bacteria, serve as Chemoattractants. In Dictyostelium, chemotaxis is[..]

Displaying 181 to 192 (of 533 pathways)
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