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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 229 to 240 (of 533 pathways)

CCR5 (Chemokine-CC Motif-Receptor-5) is a member of the chemokine receptor subclass of the GPCR (G-Protein-Coupled Receptor) superfamily. It regulates leukocyte chemotaxis in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for M-tropic (Macrophage tropic) HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) entry. It serves as a functional receptor for various inflammatory CC-chemokines, including MIP1Alpha (Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1-Alpha), MIP1Beta (Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1-Beta), and RANTES (Regulated on Activation Normal T-Expressed and Secreted protein) and is the main coreceptor for M-tropic HIV1 strains. CCR5 is expressed in lymphoid organs such as thymus and spleen, as well as in peripheral blood leukocytes, including macrophages and T-Cells. The extracellular loops and[..]

Efficient ligation of the TCR (T-Cell Receptor) by high-density Antigen can generate a productive T-Cell response and result in cytokine secretion and clonal expansion that is crucial for an optimal immune response. TCR stimulation may provoke different cell responses (proliferation, anergy to subsequent stimuli, cell death) in mature circulating T-Cells (Ref.1). Deregulation of T-Cell function, whether by defect or by excess, may result in dire consequences for us i.e., immunodeficiency and autoimmunity respectively. If the T-Cell response is too great and activation of unstimulated cells and self-responsive cells is not suppressed, then it may give rise to autoimmune disorders or tissue injury. Therefore, regulation of T-Cell activation and maintenance of the T-Cells[..]

PGC1Alpha (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator-1-Alpha) is a tissue-specific transcriptional coactivator that enhances the activity of many nuclear receptors and coordinates transcriptional programs important for cellular energy metabolism and overall energy homeostasis (Ref.1). It is a key regulator of cardiac mitochondrial functional capacity and participates in the transduction of physiologic stimuli to energy production in the heart. The expression of the PGC1Alpha gene is upregulated after birth in the heart, before the known increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and switch from glucose to fatty acids as the chief energy substrate. PGC-1Alpha gene expression is activated by short-term fasting, a condition known to increase cardiac[..]

TOB (Transducer of ErbB2), a member of the TOB and BTG (B-cell Translocation Gene) anti-proliferative protein family, negatively regulates the proliferation of Osteoblasts. Bone is formed and resorbed continuously, starting in the embryo and continuing throughout adult life. This process occurring in adult bone is called bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is accomplished by precise coordination of two cell types, Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts. Osteoblasts deposit calcified bone matrix, and Osteoclasts resorb it. Deregulation of bone remodeling leads to metabolic bone disease. Osteoporosis, for example, is characterized by reduced bone mass and it results from an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Therefore, bone remodeling needs a proper regulatory mechanism.[..]

Acute gastroenteritis is among the most common illnesses of humankind, and its associated morbidity and mortality are greatest among those at the extremes of age, children and the elderly. In developing countries, gastroenteritis is a common cause of death in children that can be linked to a wide variety of pathogens. The mammalian gastrointestinal epithelium is the largest surface area contacting the external environment. It is made up of five major cell types enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells, Paneth cells, and tuft cells. Much of the gastroenteritis in children is caused by viruses belonging to four distinct families-Rotaviruses, Caliciviruses, Astroviruses and Adenoviruses. Rotaviruses proliferate in the non-dividing[..]

The sense of taste plays a critical role in the life and nutritional status of humans and other organisms. Human taste perception may be categorized according to four well known and widely accepted descriptors, sweet, bitter, salty, and sour (corresponding to particular taste qualities or modalities), and two more controversial qualities: fat and amino acid taste.Taste is a sensory modality involving the oral perception of food-derived chemicals that stimulate receptor cells within taste buds. Taste principally serves two functions: it enables the evaluation of foods for toxicity and nutrients while helping us decide what to ingest and it prepares the body to metabolize foods once they have been ingested. Taste percepts are elicited by molecules that stimulate the[..]

The sense of taste plays a critical role in the life and nutritional status of humans and other organisms. Human taste perception may be categorized according to four well known and widely accepted descriptors, sweet, bitter, salty, and sour (corresponding to particular taste qualities or modalities), and two more controversial qualities: fat and amino acid taste. In addition to these basic tastes, the taste buds also detect a meat-like taste known as umami in protein-rich food. The food chemicals that produce tastes set off different reactions from the taste buds with a main goal of sending signals along nerve fibers to the brain for interpretation. The perception of bitter taste is essential for its protective value, enabling humans to avoid potentially deadly plant[..]

G Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCRs) based on sequence and structural similarities have been divided into five major classes: Rhodopsin (class A), Secretin (class B), Glutamate (class C), Adhesion, and Frizzled/Taste. A number of critical regulatory peptides, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone, calcitonin gene-related peptide, parathyroid hormone, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) activate the Rhodopsin (class A) GPCRs. These regulatory peptides are important for neural development, calcium homeostasis, glucosemetabolism, circadian rhythm, thermoregulation, inflammation,feeding behaviour, pain modulation, as well as stress andrelated endocrine responses. ADCYAP1 (Adenylate Cyclase Activating[..]

Malaria is caused by infection with four species of the intracellular protozoan parasite Plasmodium that are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Most severe form of malaria in human is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, with above 300 million people affected by malaria each year and about 2 million deaths (Ref.1). Life cycle of Plasmodium in human starts with a bite from an infected mosquito and an initial phase of infection and replication in liver cells: the exo-erythrocytic phase, where merozoites are formed. These merozoites then enter the bloodstream beginning the asexual bloodstage lifecycle of this parasite to known as erythrocytic phase where they may proliferate indefinitely in red blood cells (RBCs) (Ref.2). Merozoite first invades the host RBC through a[..]

Pathogenic microbes subvert normal host-cell processes to create a specialized niche, which enhances their survival. A common and recurring target of pathogens is the host cell's cytoskeleton, which is utilized by these microbes for purposes that include attachment, entry into cells, movement within and between cells, vacuole formation and remodeling, and avoidance of phagocytosis. One such subversive microbe is a gram-negative pathogen EPEC (Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) that causes chronic, watery diarrhea in humans, primarily young children and infants. Central to EPEC-mediated disease is its colonization of the intestinal epithelium. After initial adherence, EPEC causes the localized effacement of microvilli and intimately attaches to the host cell surface,[..]

Bacterial pathogens possess highly specialized adaptive processes that enable their penetration of the host intestinal epithelium and cause disease. Once bound to the epithelial surface, bacteria may colonize and establish a permanent residence in the gut. Some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria have acquired sophisticated 'molecular syringes', such as Type-III or Type-IV secretion systems, which are multisubunit molecular machines that span the bacterial and host membranes and translocate effectors directly into host cells. Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen causing disease by invading the colonic mucosa. When Shigella reaches the colon, the bacteria are translocated through the epithelial barrier by way of the M-Cells of[..]

The olfactory system is a very efficient biological setup capable of odor information processing with neural signals. The mammalian olfactory system can recognize and discriminate a large number of different odorant molecules. The detection of chemically distinct odorants presumably results from the association of odorous ligands with specific receptors on OSNs (Olfactory Sensory Neurons). As a chemical sensor, the olfactory system detects food and influences social and sexual behavior. Activation occurs when odiferous molecules come in contact with specialized processes known as the olfactory vesicles. Within the nasal cavity, the turbinates or nasal conchae serve to direct the inspired air toward the olfactory epithelium in the upper posterior region. This area[..]

Displaying 229 to 240 (of 533 pathways)


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