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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 169 to 180 (of 533 pathways)

Apoptosis (also called programmed cell death) is a cellular death program that is inherent to all mammalian cells and plays an important role in the regulation of various physiological and pathological conditions. It serves to eliminate any unnecessary or unwanted cells and is a highly regulated process. There are a wide variety of conditions that will result in the apoptotic pathway becoming activated including DNA damage or uncontrolled proliferation. The apoptotic pathway is activated by both intracellular and extracellular signals. The central apoptotic machinery can be divided into two major signaling pathways, comprising the death receptor (extrinsic) and the mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway. Both pathways eventually fuel into a common effector phase that is[..]

Cell Polarity is an essential characteristic of virtually every cell type. The budding yeast S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been critical for elucidation of proteins and mechanisms that underlie Cell Polarity development. Polarized Growth is mediated by a series of steps involving cortical landmarks, Rho GTPases and a polarized Actin cytoskeleton. Actin cortical patches are essential for normal Endocytosis and secretion is targeted to the bud or mating projection, allowing selective growth in that area. Patches are associated with invaginations of the plasma membrane and occur in polarized clusters at regions of cell growth in budding cells. One of the crucial Rho type GTPases is CDC42 (Cell Division Control Protein-42) which facilitates decisive event[..]

Actin cortical patches are one of the major cytoskeletal structures in yeast and are essential for normal Endocytosis, Cell Growth and Morphology. Actin cortical patches are associated with invaginations of the plasma membrane and occur in polarized clusters at regions of cell growth in budding cells (Ref.1). Patch Assembly probably begins with the association of assembly factors recruited to the plasma membrane by CDC42 (Cell Division Control Protein-42) and its associated proteins and is then followed by nucleation of Actin filaments and Actin-dependent association of proteins regulating filament assembly and stability. Prior to bud emergence in S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), cells polarize the Actin cytoskeleton toward the future bud site and assemble a[..]

The S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) CDC42 (Cell Division Control Protein-42), a member of the Rho/Rac subfamily of Ras-Like GTPases (GTP-Binding Proteins) and Ras superfamily of low molecular-weight GTPases, is essential for the control of cell polarity during the yeast cell cycle. CDC42 occurs in both soluble and particulate pools, and neither its abundance nor its distribution varied through the cell cycle. In S. cerevisiae, CDC42 is localized to the bud site early in the cell cycle and this localization is critical for the selection of the proper site for Bud Emergence and for Polarized Cell Growth. It plays an important role in multiple Actin-dependent morphogenetic events such as Bud Emergence, Mating-Projection Formation and Pseudohyphal Growth. CDC42[..]

Ovarian sex steroid production is essential for Follicular growth and subsequent Ovulation in Xenopus laevis. In the Xenopus ovary, Oocytes are arrested in an immature form in the Cell Cycle at Prophase-I boundary of the first meiotic cycle, and grow to their maximal size. Prophase-I arrest is terminated by specific signals, often Steroid Hormones, that cause release from Cell Cycle arrest and induce progression  of the Meiotic Cell Cycles to an arrest point during the second Meiotic division, often at Metaphase-II. This process, referred to as “Oocyte Maturation” transforms the immature Oocyte into a fertilizable egg. Two Steroid Hormones: Progesterone and Androgens are the primary mediators of Xenopus oocyte maturation. These hormones are synthesized in the[..]

Oocyte maturation is the final process of oogenesis where the fully grown ooocytes undergo meiosis to become fertilizable. Oocyte maturation begins with the breakdown of the oocyte nucleus, the germinal vesicle (GV), which occurs by the rapid condensation of the chromosomes to the metaphase state which then move towards the animal pole and divide into two haploid sets and enter the meiosis II. Oocyte maturation in vertebrates is a complex process that requires several morphological, biochemical and ultra structural signaling events and may lead to decreased fertility if any of the programs is disrupted.  Hormones like Progesterone can induce oocyte maturation in Xenopus laevis (X.laevis) (Ref.1 and 2). In Xenopus laevis, immature oocytes are physiologically[..]

Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells found in skin, hair follicles, eyes, inner ear, bones, heart and brain of humans. Melanocytes are generally important for their role in Skin pigmentation, and their ability to produce and distribute Melanin is well known. Melanocytes are responsible for the endogenous synthesis of melanin pigments. Melanin is produced in Melanosomes, specialized organelles that are translocated from the center of the Melanocyte cytoplasm to the tip of its Dendrites. The Dendrites are then involved in the transfer of the Melanosomes to the Keratinocytes.Two main types of melanin pigment are synthesized in human, pheomelanin and eumelanin, and their combination leads to skin colour. Pheomelanin and eumelanin derive from a single precursor, the[..]

The processing of visual information begins in the retina with the detection of light by photoreceptor cells. In humans, two types of photoreceptors in the retina mediate the light response: the rods which mediate vision in dim light and the cones which mediate bright light and color vision. Humans have one rod and three cones for long, medium- and short-waves. Rhodopsin is the photosensitive pigment of the rod photoreceptor cell that initiates the visual signaling cascade and is comprised of a protein part (opsin) and the 11-cis form of vitamin A aldehyde (11-cis retinal) covalently bound to the opsin via a Schiff base linkage. Light converts the 11-cis bond to all-trans changing the inverse agonist to an agonist to enable the opsin to activate its G protein[..]

C. albicans (Candida albicans) is a polymorphic fungus which resides as a lifelong, harmless commensal organism in normal condition.  Under certain circumstances, however, C. albicans can cause a wide range of superficial mucosal diseases as well as life-threatening systemic yeast infections in immunocompromised patients (Ref.1). C. albicans is is dimorphic in nature and has the ability to grow in a variety of morphological forms, including as budding yeast, pseudohyphae, and true hyphae (Ref.2). Different environmental cues like nutrient limitation, pH, temperature,  CO2, N-Acetylglucosamine, and serum induces morphogenesis in C. albicans and the major pathways that control morphogenesis in C.albicans are RAS-MAPK pathway and cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA)[..]

The signal transduction cascades regulating asexual sporulation in the Ascomycetous filamentous fungi A. nidulans (Aspergillus nidulans) can be divided into two phases: a Growth phase, in which cells become competent to respond to sporulation-inducing signals and an Asexual reproduction phase, including initiation of the Sporulation pathway and formation of spore-bearing structures. A. nidulans is homothallic (self-fertile). This fungus grows by forming an ordered network of filaments or hyphae that form a mycelium (Ref.1). The hyphae grow by apical extension and multiply by branching; giving rise to a radially symmetrical colony that expands at a constant rate. After a fixed period of time following vegetative growth, some hyphal cells within the center of the[..]

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria mainly causing infection in warm blooded animals. Chlamydia includes four species: C.trachomatis, C.pneumoniae, C.psittaci, and C.pecorum, out of which C.pneumoniae, C.psittaci, and C.trachomatis are human pathogens.  Chlamydophila pneumonia is responsible for a number of different acute and chronic infections. It causes causes both lower and upper acute respiratory illnesses. C.pneumoia is also believed to be associated with cardiovascular and central nervous system disorders (Ref.1 and 2).  C.pneumonia has a biphasic developmental life cycle that alternate between two morphologically distinct forms, the elementary body (EB) which is infectious and environmentally resistant form and the reticulate[..]

Inflammation is the process by which an organism responds to tissue injury involving both immune cell recruitment and mediator release. Diverse causes of neuropathic pain are associated with excessive inflammation in both the peripheral and central nervous system which may contribute to the initiation and maintenance of persistent pain. Chemical mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators, released during an inflammatory response have the undesired effect of sensitizing and stimulating nociceptors, their central synaptic targets or both. These changes can promote long-term maladaptive plasticity resulting in persistent neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain typically develops when peripheral nerves are damaged such as through surgery, bone compression in[..]

Displaying 169 to 180 (of 533 pathways)


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