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Metabolic Pathways

Displaying 169 to 180 (of 291 pathways)

Burkholderia mallei are gram negative bacteria and are evolved as obligate parasite of horses, mules, and donkeys with no other known natural reservoir. B.mallei is regarded as a potential biological weapon because it is highly infectious as an aerosol and results in a disease that is painful, incapacitating, difficult to diagnose, and often fatal (Ref.1 & 2). Glutathione is a tripeptide present in B. mallei sp., which is composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine, and has numerous important functions within cells. The tripeptide is the thiol compound, present in the highest concentration in all types of cells.Glutathione metabolism in B. mallei involves both the synthesis of Glutathione and its catabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis starts from an L-Amino acid,[..]

Brucella is a Gram-negative aerobic pathogen that is distringuished from most other pathogens because it does not have "obvious virulence factors" like capsules, fimbriae, flagella, exotoxins, exproteases, or other exoenzymes, cytolysins, resistance forms, antigenic variation, plamids, or lysogenic phages (Ref.1). Brucella sp. causes a "zoonotic disease endemic in many areas of the world, characterized by chronic infections in animals leading to abortion and infertility, and a systemic, febrile illness in humans". Brucella melitensis is the cause of brucellosis in goats, cattle, sheep, pigs, dogs, marine mammals, and several wild animals. Goats are the natural hosts for B. melitensis. This bacterium is also the cause of a rarer, more severe systemic infection called[..]

Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are closely related Gram-negative Beta-proteobacteria that colonizes the respiratory tracts of mammals. B. parapertussis causes whooping cough in a wide range of animals. It produces a complex array of adhesins, aggressins and toxins that are presumed to be important in the colonisation of its human host and in ensuring its survival and propagation. Adherence of B. parapertussis to ciliated epithelia is species-specific making it unlikely that the transfer of B. parapertussis between humans and sheep will result in an infection (Ref.1 & 2). Glutathione in Bordetella is a tripeptide, composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine, and has numerous important functions within the bacterial cell.[..]

Bordetella is a Gram-negative Beta-proteobacteria that colonizes the respiratory tracts of mammals. It produces a complex array of adhesins, aggressins and toxins that are presumed to be important in the colonisation of its human host and in ensuring its survival and propagation. The organism also has highly sophisticated mechanisms for regulating virulence factor expression, in response to environmental signals or by reversible mutations. Bordetella pertussis, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, produces numerous toxins including Pertussis Toxin, Adenylate Cyclase Toxin, Dermonecrotic Toxin and Tracheal Cytotoxin (Ref.1, 2 & 3).Glutathione in Bordetella is a tripeptide, composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine, and has numerous important functions within the[..]

Glutathione is an intracellular low-molecular-mass thiol which serves as a major cellular line of defense against oxidative stimuli at several levels.  Glutathione plays important roles in antioxidant defense, nutrient metabolism, and regulation of cellular. Glutathione deficiency contributes to oxidative stress leading to aging and the pathogenesis of many diseases (including kwashiorkor, seizure, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, liver disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, HIV, AIDS, cancer, heart attack, stroke, and diabetes). Glutathione is predominantly found in its reduced state or as oxidation product GSSG (glutathione disulfide) formed from two molecules of glutathione linked by a disulfide bond by the action of NADPH-dependent[..]

Bartonella quintana is a fastidious, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the etiologic agent of the trench fever. This disease was first identified in the trenches of World War I. The bacterium lives in the gut of the body louse and is transmitted in their faeces. It enters the human body through damaged skin or through the conjunctiva of the eye. Promiscuity and dirty conditions in the trenches enable the spread of the disease. B. quintana is also responsible for a disease called Bacillary Angiomatosis and for causing Endocarditis (Ref.1 & 2). Glutathione is a small molecule found in Bartonella cell. Glutathione metabolism in B. quintana involves both the synthesis of Glutathione and its catabolism. It cannot enter most cells directly and therefore must be made[..]

Bacteria of the genus Brucella are Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogens of various wild and domestic mammals and are able to cause brucellosis, a severe zoonotic infection affecting ruminants, pigs, dogs, rodents, and cetacean. Traditionally, three major species are distinguished by their predilections for certain animal hosts: Brucella abortus for cattle, Brucella melitensis for caprines, and Brucella suis for hogs. Whereas B. abortus is the livestock pathogen with the greatest economic impact, B. melitensis and B. suis account for most clinical cases in humans (Ref.1, 2 & 3). Human brucellosis, or Malta fever, is a serious debilitating disease that is rife in endemic areas including the Mediterranean basin and Latin America. The key aspect of[..]

Bartonella henselae is a fastidious, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen of cats and humans. Bartonella sp. are transmitted by insect vectors, using mammalian reservoirs, infecting similar cell types (Endothelial cells and Erythrocytes) and causing vasculoproliferative changes in immunocompromised hosts. B. henselae causes CSD (Cat Scratch Disease). Most people with CSD have been bitten or scratched by a cat and developed a mild infection at the point of injury. Lymph nodes, especially those around the head, neck, and upper limbs, become swollen. Additionally, a person with CSD may experience fever, headache, fatigue, and a poor appetite. Rare complications of B. henselae infection are bacillary angiomatosis and Parinaud's oculolandular syndrome (Ref.1 & 2).[..]

Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor. It is ubiquitous in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and being water soluble is found mainly in the cell cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system. It cannot enter most cells directly and therefore must be made available inside the cell from its three constituent amino acids: Glycine, Glutamate and Cysteine. The rate at which glutathione can be made depends on the availability of Cysteine, which is relatively scarce in foodstuffs. Furthermore, the Cysteine molecule has a sulfur-containing portion which gives the whole Glutathione molecule its ‘biochemical activity’. Cysteine can also enter the Glutathione metabolism through several other metabolic pathways like[..]

Caulobacter crescentus is a Gram-negative non-pathogenic bacterium that grows in dilute aquatic environments. It is a member of the Alpha-subdivision of Proteobacteria. C. crescentus invariably differentiates and divides asymmetrically at each cell cycle. C. crescentus is a simple and highly manipulable single-celled model system to study cellular differentiation, asymmetric division, and their coordination with cell cycle progression (Ref.1 & 2).Glutathione is a sulfhydryl (-SH) antioxidant, antitoxin, and enzyme cofactor and is ubiquitous in all organisms including microorganisms like C. crescentus. It is a tripeptide composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine, and has numerous important functions within cells. Being water soluble, it is found mainly in the cell[..]

Corynebacterium efficiens is a small, generally nonmotile, Gram-positive, non-sporulating pleomorphic bacillus that enjoys widespread distribution. Corynebacteria are chemoorganotroph and aerobic, or facultatively anaerobic, exhibiting a fermentative metabolism (carbohydrates to lactic acid) under certain conditions. They are fastidious organisms, growing slowly on even an enriched medium. C. efficiens serve for the industrial production of L-Amino acids, in particular L-Glutamic acid (a million tons each year), for a long time. C. efficiens can grow at temperatures above 40 degrees Celsius and this feature is quite beneficial for its industrial use, because fermenters to be used for its cultivation need to be cooled down only to a lesser extent for heat removal[..]

Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, non pathogenic and fast growing soil bacterium with special biotechnological importance C. glutamicum is an amino acid producing soil bacterium. A typical feature of this organism is the formation of V-shaped structures of dividing cells, called "snapping division". C. glutamicum is used for industrial amino acid production and hence grown in bioreactors under control of the process parameters (Ref. 1). Glutathione is a thiol compound, present in the highest concentration in all types of cells. It is composed of Glutamate, Cysteine and Glycine, and has numerous important functions within the C. glutamicum cell. Glutathione metabolism in C. glutamicum occurs within cells in two closely linked, enzymatically[..]

Displaying 169 to 180 (of 291 pathways)
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