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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 25 to 36 (of 533 pathways)

Probiotics are living microorganisms that confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts; however, dead bacteria and their components also exhibit probiotic properties. Bifidobacterium and strains of lactic acid bacteria are the most widely used bacteria that exhibit probiotic properties and are included in many functional foods and dietary supplements (Ref.1&2).During intestinal bacterial infection, there is colonization of the gut epithelium by the pathogen. The mucus produced by goblet cells accounts as one of the first lines of defense against pathogenic bacteria colonization and the intestinal cells produce antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins and defensins) in order to contain the infection. Cathelicidins are small, cationic,[..]

Endocannabinoids are endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors that bind as the principal biologically active component of Cannabis sativa, D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC), and also comprise amides, esters and ethers of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a neuromodulatory system that plays important role in central nervous system (CNS) development, synaptic plasticity and in cancer pathogenesis as tumor promoters. The endocannabinoid system consists of endocannabinoids (major derivative include arachydonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachydonoil glycerol (2AG)), their G-protein-coupled receptors[..]

CHREBP (Carbohydrate-response element-binding protein) is the major transcription factor conferring glucose-induced gene expression in pancreatic islets, liver and adipose tissue. To date, only two natural isoforms, CHREBPα and CHREBPβ, have been identified. CHREBP-β was identified in adipose tissue and found to be also expressed in islets and involved in glucose-induced beta cell proliferation. In adult pancreatic β cells, CHREBP activity is regulated by its cytosolic/nuclear localization (Ref.1&2).Chronic hyperglycemia, the hallmark of type 1 and T2D, can cause damage to numerous cell types, including pancreatic β cells. Although under physiological conditions an increase in glucose metabolism stimulates insulin secretion,[..]

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that is rapidly evolving and spreading at a different rate in different countries. SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19, a kind of viral pneumonia with an unusual outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, belongs to the beta-coronavirus group of the Coronaviridae family, order Nidovirale, which also include other deadly viruses like SARS and MERS. SARS-CoV-2 shows about 88 percent identity to two bat-derived sequence of severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS)-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, and about 50 percent identity to the sequence of MERS-CoV (Ref.1 and 2). The SARS-CoV-2 genome consists of a positive sense single stranded RNA molecule[..]

Ethanol is a psychoactive substance with rewarding and sedative-hypnotic properties that stem largely from its acute effects on specific signaling proteins that lead to changes in localization and post-translational modifications, gene expression and neuronal excitability. Neurons adapt to repeated ethanol exposure through homeostatic changes in cellular signaling pathways that serve to maintain nervous system function in the presence of ethanol. The STOP and GO intracellular signaling pathways control alcohol drinking behavior. Moderate and/or limited consumption of alcohol results in the activation of signaling cascades within the STOP pathways. STOP signaling pathways which center on genes such as BDNF and GDNF. Activation of the STOP signaling cascades limits the[..]

GVHD (Graft-Versus-Host Disease) is the main complication after allogeneic SCT (Stem Cell Transplantation) and induced by donor T cells in the graft. As in physiological T cell responses, alloreactive T cells depend on their activation by APCs (Antigen Presenting Cells). Potential APCs are B cells, monocytes/macrophages,and mainly dendritic cells (DC), the most efficient cells in antigen uptake, processing, and presentation on HLA class I and class II molecules. In HLA-mismatched SCT, HLA molecules are recognized directly by donor T cells with a variable contribution of the HLA-bound peptide, whereas mHA (Minor Histocompatibility Antigens) are the main targets in HLA-identical SCT. These mHA consist of HLA-bound peptides derived from polymorphic proteins that differ[..]

T-cell activation and effector function is mediated by the formation of a long-lasting interaction established between T-cells and APCs (Antigen-Presenting Cells) called Immunological synapse (IS). During T-cell activation, different signaling molecules as well as the cytoskeleton and the endosomal compartment are polarized to the IS. Compartmentalization of interactions at the interface of T and B cells as the central accumulation of T-cell receptor–major histocompatibility complex–peptide (TCR-MHCp) interactions surrounded by a peripheral ring of adhesion molecule interactions. They called these zones, c-SMAC or p-SMAC respectively (central and peripheral supra-molecular activation clusters). The major components of the c-SMAC are key molecules for T[..]

Cushing’s syndrome (CS) has been described for about a century and represents a classical syndrome in endocrinology. Recent years have been marked by progress in elucidating the etiology and the pathogenesis of the disease. Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is classically divided into corticotrophin (ACTH)-dependent and ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. ACTH-dependent subtype is caused by a pituitary ACTH-producing adenoma, also known as Cushing’s disease (70% of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome). Other cases are caused by ectopic ACTH secretion (10%) from a variety of neuroendocrine neoplasms including para ganglioma,phaeochromocytoma and neuroendocrine tumours of various sites (lung, thyroid, thymus,appendix and pancreas. While ACTH dependent[..]

SLE (Systemic lupus erythematosis) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies and the deposition of immune complexes, affecting a wide range of organs. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to “self” leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart and brain. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are critically involved in the misguided immune response against self-antigens. Dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells are important in initiating antigen presentation and propagating inflammation at lymphoid and peripheral tissue sites. Autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes and immune[..]

P53, the most extensively studied tumor suppressor, is a regulative factor of many processes necessary for the proper functioning of cells, and it corresponds to a number of processes associated with its life and death. The p53 protein regulates the repair of cellular DNA and induces apoptosis when the damage of the gene is too serious and it is impossible to repair. P53 can be activated by DNA damage, hypoxia, or aberrant oncogene expression to promote cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA repair, cellular senescence, and apoptosis (Ref.1 and 2). There are four conserved domains in p53: N-terminal domain, which is required for transcriptional transactivation, a sequence-specific DNA binding domain, a tetramerization domain near the C-terminal end and a C-terminal domain that[..]

Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from preexisting ones, are important processes during embryonic development, tissue growth, wound healing, and several pathological conditions. Several molecules are important for angiogenesis, most important being vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members and their corresponding receptors. VEGF belongs to the PDGF supergene family characterized by 8 conserved cysteines and functions as a homodimer structure. In mammals, the VEGF family consists of five members: VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD, and placental growth factor (PIGF). The human VEGF gene (located on chromosome 6) consists of several exons that can be alternatively spliced to encode several protein isoforms including: VEGF121,[..]

The endothelium functions as a semipermeable barrier, regulating tissue fluid homeostasis and transmigration of leukocytes and providing essential nutrients across the vessel wall. Transport of plasma proteins and solutes across the endothelium involves two different routes: one transcellular, via caveolae-mediated vesicular transport, and the other paracellular, through interendothelial junctions. The permeability of the endothelial barrier is an exquisitely regulated process in the resting state and in response to extracellular stimuli and mediators. The migratory properties of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) are indispensable to drive immune responses throughout the body. To ensure migration to the proper locations, the trafficking of leukocytes is tightly[..]

Displaying 25 to 36 (of 533 pathways)


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