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Displaying 97 to 108 (of 821 pathways)

The bacterium E. coli (Escherichia coli) is one of the best and most thoroughly studied free-living organisms. It is also a remarkably diverse species because some E. coli strains live as harmless commensals in animal intestines, whereas other distinct genotypes including the enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic, enteroinvasive, enterotoxigenic, and enteroaggregative E. coli causes significant morbidity and mortality as human intestinal pathogens (Ref.1). Extra-intestinal E. coli are another varied group of life-threatening pathogens of this manifestly versatile species. This latter group of pathogens includes distinct clonal groups responsible for neonatal meningitis/sepsis and urinary tract infections. E. coli is Gram-negative, flagellated and members of the strain E.[..]

The bacterium E. coli O157 (Escherichia coli O157) is a worldwide threat to public health and are implicated in many outbreaks of Haemorrhagic Colitis, some of which included fatalities caused by Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome. The severity of disease, the lack of effective treatment and the potential for large-scale outbreaks from contaminated food supplies have propelled intensive research on the pathogenesis and detection of E. coli O157 strains and these include candidate virulence factors, alternative metabolic capacities, several prophages and other new functions-all of which could be targets for surveillance (Ref.1). The enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157 EDL933 is Gram-negative having external flagella. The involvement of D- and L-Amino acid metabolism like L-Serine,[..]

The bacterium E. coli O157 (Escherichia coli O157) is a worldwide threat to public health and are implicated in many outbreaks of Haemorrhagic Colitis, some of which included fatalities caused by Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome. The severity of disease, the lack of effective treatment and the potential for large-scale outbreaks from contaminated food supplies have propelled intensive research on the pathogenesis and detection of E. coli O157 strains and these include candidate virulence factors, alternative metabolic capacities, several prophages and other new functions-all of which could be targets for surveillance (Ref.1). The enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157 Sakai is Gram-negative, having external flagella and first derived from an outbreak in Sakai city, Japan. It[..]

E. faecalis (Enterococcus faecalis), also known as S. faecalis (Streptococcus faecalis), a Gram-positive bacterium, is a natural inhabitant of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and is found in soil, sewage, water and food, frequently through fecal contamination. It is an opportunistic pathogen that is a major cause of urinary tract infections, Bacteremia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and infective Endocarditis. It has become a nosocomial pathogen that is refractory to most therapeutic options (Ref.1). The involvement of D- and L-Amino acid metabolism like L-Serine, L-Threonine and Glycine plays a major role in cell sustenance, generation of several essential compounds, intact protein synthesis, and pathogenesis in E. faecalis (Ref.2). In E.[..]

Enterococci are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic and Lactic acid producing bacteria. Most strains are non-hemolytic. E. faecalis (Enterococcus faecalis), also known as S. faecalis (Streptococcus faecalis), the second most frequent enterococcal species, is a saprophytic commensal that inhabits the oral cavity and gastrointestinal flora of humans and animals and behaves as an opportunistic pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, Bacteremia, and bacterial Endocarditis. The increased incidence of E. faecalis infection has been related to the innate resistance of this microorganism to many commonly used antimicrobial agents and to its ability to become resistant to most, and in some cases to all, of the presently available[..]

E. carotovora (Erwinia carotovora) is a species of plant pathogenic, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria which gets its name from carrots, but it affects many other vegetables, including potatoes, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, lettuce and even some ornamental plants like Iris. The bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae is notable for its well studied human pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella, and Escherichia spp. However, it also contains several plant pathogens. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) strain SCRI1043 is the causative agent of Soft rot and Blackleg potato diseases (Ref.1). Gram-negative bacteria employ a type of conserved signaling called Quorum Sensing. Quorum Sensing regulates as a switch controlling metabolic[..]

G. sulfurreducens (Geobacter sulfurreducens), a delta-proteobacterium, is an obligately anaerobic, non-fermentative, non-motile, Gram-negative rod. Geobacter species are of interest because of their novel electron transfer capabilities, impact on the natural environment and their application to the Bioremediation of contaminated environments and harvesting electricity from waste organic matter. G. sulfurreducens breaks down heavy metals and is being used to clean up toxic metal waste sites like Uranium, etc. Central to the metabolism of G. sulfurreducens is the ability to anaerobically oxidize Acetate (an abundant electron donor and carbon source in subsurface zones) completely to CO2  (Carbondioxide) and water using a variety of electron acceptors including metal[..]

P. acnes (Propionibacterium acnes) is the most common Gram-positive, non-spore forming, anaerobic rod and a major inhabitant of adult human skin, where it resides within sebaceous follicles, usually as a harmless commensal, even though it has been implicated in Acne Vulgaris (Pimples) formation. P. acnes typically grows as an obligate anaerobe, however, some strains are aerotolerant, but still show better growth as an anaerobe. It has the ability to produce Propionic acid and Catalase along with Indole, Nitrate, or both Indole and Nitrate. The bacteria release Lipases to digest a surplus of the skin oil, Sebum. The combination of digestive products (Fatty acids) and bacterial antigens stimulates an intense local inflammation that bursts the hair follicle. Then, a[..]

Organisms vary widely in their ability to metabolize amino acids. Based on metabolic requirements amino acids are grouped as essential amino acids (that must be provided in as nutrient) and non-essential amino acids (biosynthesized in adequate amounts). Except for Glycine, all amino acids occur in two possible optical isomers, called D and L. Because of the two hydrogen atoms at the Alpha-carbon, Glycine is not optically active. The L-amino acids represent the vast majority of amino acids found in proteins, whereas, D-amino acids are found in some proteins produced by exotic sea-dwelling organisms, but are abundant components of the cell walls of bacteria. Amino acid metabolisms are vital for the maintenance of normal nitrogen balance in an organism. The Alpha-amino[..]

H. hepaticus (Helicobacter hepaticus) causes chronic Hepatitis and liver cancer in mice. It is the prototype enterohepatic Helicobacter species and a close relative of H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori), also a recognized carcinogen. H. hepaticus have a circular chromosome encoding 1,875 proteins. A total of 938, 953, and 821 proteins have orthologs in H. pylori, C. jejuni (Campylobacter jejuni), and both pathogens, respectively. H. hepaticus lacks orthologs of most known H. pylori virulence factors, including Adhesins, the Vacuolating Cytotoxin, and almost all cag pathogenicity island proteins, but have orthologs of the C. jejuni Adhesin Peb1 and the CDT (Cytolethal Distending Toxin) (Ref.1). The Type-IV secretion system helps in establishing pathogenicity. H. hepaticus[..]

H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) are Gram-negative, micro-aerophilic, spiral-shaped and flagellated bacteria that remains associated with Gastric inflammation and Peptic ulcer disease. As a human pathogen, H. pylori’s presence in the gastric mucosa is associated with Gastritis and is often implicated in Peptic ulceration and Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue Lymphomas (Ref.1). The H. pylori genome is important for drug discovery and vaccine development and this is exemplified by the genome analysis of H. pylori Strain 26695. H. pylori 26695 protein-coding genes (1,590 genes) are unique to the strain. H. pylori have well-developed systems for motility, for scavenging iron, and for DNA restriction and modification. Many putative Adhesins, Lipoproteins and other[..]

The human pathogen, H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) present in the gastric mucosa is associated with Gastritis and is often implicated in Peptic ulceration and Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue Lymphomas (Ref.1). The H. pylori genome is important for drug discovery and vaccine development and this is exemplified by the genome analysis of not only H. pylori Strain 26695 but also H. pylori J99. H. pylori J99 protein-coding genes (91 genes) are unique to the strain. H. pylori J99 are Gram-negative, micro-aerophilic, spiral-shaped and flagellated bacteria and mainly stimulate pathogenesis of Duodenal ulcers (Ref.2 & 3).H. pylori utilize amino acids as the sole carbon and nitrogen energy source. Amino acids like Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartate, Glutamine,[..]

Displaying 97 to 108 (of 821 pathways)
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