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Displaying 97 to 108 (of 809 pathways)

The Gram-negative, micro-aerophilic, spiral-shaped and flagellated bacteria, H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) are associated with the pathogenesis of Gastric inflammation and Peptic ulcer disease. Presence of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa is associated with Gastritis and is often implicated in Peptic ulceration and Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue Lymphomas. The H. pylori genome is important for drug discovery and vaccine development and this is exemplified by the genome analysis of H. pylori Strain 26695 (Ref.1). H. pylori 26695 protein-coding genes (1,590 genes) are unique to the strain. H. pylori have well-developed systems for motility, for scavenging iron, and for DNA restriction and modification. H. pylori utilize amino acids as the sole carbon and nitrogen[..]

The H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) J99 strains are Gram-negative, micro-aerophilic, spiral-shaped and flagellated bacteria, are associated with the pathogenesis of Gastric inflammation and Peptic ulcer disease (Ref.1). Presence of H. pylori J99 in the gastric mucosa is associated with Duodenal ulcers. The H. pylori genome is important for drug discovery and vaccine development and this is exemplified by the genome analysis of not only H. pylori Strain 26695 but also H. pylori J99. H. pylori J99 protein-coding genes (91 genes) are unique to the strain. H. pylori have well-developed systems for motility, for scavenging iron, and for DNA restriction and modification. H. pylori utilize amino acids as the sole carbon and nitrogen energy source. It also utilizes Glucose.[..]

S. thermophilum (Symbiobacterium thermophilum) is a Tryptophanase-positive, Gram-negative, symbiotic thermophile, which shows normal growth only in co-culture with its supporting bacteria like Bacillus sp. under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. S. thermophilum possesses the necessary enzymes required for the biosynthesis of all essential amino acids. The metabolism of Serine and Glycine is used as a source of Glycine, Serine, one-carbon units, and Threonine. L-Serine is a key intermediate in a number of important metabolic pathways and is also an important precursor biomolecule in the synthesis of Phospholipids (Ref.1 & 2). L-Serine is converted into phospholipids like Phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine by Phosphatidylserine Synthase and PsD[..]

Wolbachia are intracellular Gram-negative bacteria found in association with a variety of invertebrate species, including Insects, Mites, Spiders, terrestrial Crustaceans, and Nematodes. Wolbachia are transovarialy transmitted from females to their offspring and are extremely widespread. Wolbachia sp. are members of the Rickettsiales order of the Alpha-subdivision of the Proteobacteria phyla and belong to the Anaplasmataceae family, with members of the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Cowdria, and Neorickettsia. Six major clades (A-F) of Wolbachia have been identified to date: A, B, E, and F have been reported from Insects, Arachnids, and Crustaceans; C and D from Filarial Nematodes (Ref.1). Wolbachia are of great interest due to their diverse interactions with different[..]

A. marginale (Anaplasma marginale) is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium. It is the most prevalent tick-borne pathogen of cattle worldwide and is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A. marginale causes Anaplasmosis, an infectious blood disease which results in significant morbidity and mortality in cattle. A. marginale invades the red blood cells of the host animal and multiplies, causing their destruction. The presence of the parasite in the red blood cells stimulates the cattle's immune system to remove the affected cells from circulation and destroy them. This large scale destruction of red blood cells results in Anaemia, fever, weight loss, respiratory distress, abortion and often death. Although some young, infected cattle tend[..]

Leptospira is a genus of Spirochetal bacteria and the causative agent of Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution and transmission to humans occurs through contact with domestic or wild animal reservoirs or an environment contaminated by their urine. Leptospira is a flexible, spiral-shaped, Gram-negative Spirochete with internal flagella. Leptospira enters the host through mucosa and broken skin, resulting in Bacteremia. The Spirochetes multiply in organs, most commonly the Central Nervous System, kidneys, liver and conjunctiva. Infective bacteria are shed in the urine. These organisms establish themselves a commensal relationship with many animal hosts, persisting in the renal tubules without producing disease or causing pathologic changes in the[..]

The genus Leptospira consists of a genetically heterogeneous group of pathogenic and saprophytic species belonging to the phylum Spirochaetales. It is the causative agent of Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution and transmission to humans occurs through contact with domestic or wild animal reservoirs or an environment contaminated by their urine. Leptospira is a flexible, spiral-shaped, Gram-negative Spirochete with internal flagella. Leptospira enters the host through mucosa and broken skin, resulting in Bacteremia. The Spirochetes multiply in organs, most commonly the Central Nervous System, kidneys, liver and conjunctiva. Infective bacteria are shed in the urine. These organisms establish themselves a commensal relationship with many animal[..]

Leptospira is a genus of Spirochetal bacteria and the causative agent of Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution and transmission to humans occurs through contact with domestic or wild animal reservoirs or an environment contaminated by their urine. Leptospira is a flexible, spiral-shaped, Gram-negative Spirochete with internal flagella. Leptospira enters the host through mucosa and broken skin, resulting in Bacteremia. The Spirochetes multiply in organs, most commonly the Central Nervous System, kidneys, liver and conjunctiva. Infective bacteria are shed in the urine. These organisms establish themselves a commensal relationship with many animal hosts, persisting in the renal tubules without producing disease or causing pathologic changes in the[..]

The genus Leptospira consists of a genetically heterogeneous group of pathogenic and saprophytic species belonging to the phylum Spirochaetales. It is the causative agent of Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution and transmission to humans occurs through contact with domestic or wild animal reservoirs or an environment contaminated by their urine. Leptospira is a flexible, spiral-shaped, Gram-negative Spirochete with internal flagella. Leptospira enters the host through mucosa and broken skin, resulting in Bacteremia. The Spirochetes multiply in organs, most commonly the Central Nervous System, kidneys, liver and conjunctiva. Infective bacteria are shed in the urine. These organisms establish themselves a commensal relationship with many animal[..]

T. maritima (Thermotoga maritima), is an anerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which usually grows singly or in pairs. The organism has an optimum growth temperature of 80 degrees centigrade. T. maritima metabolizes many simple and complex carbohydrates, keto-acids, etc. to fuels such as Hydrogen. The metabolism of amino acids like Glycine, Serine and Threonine acts as a source of carbon and energy for T. maritima by the conversion of amino acids to keto-acids and carbohydrates (Ref.1). The Glycine Cleavage System catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of Glycine in bacteria to supply one carbon units and generation of other vital amino acids like L-Serine and L-Threonine. The Glycine Cleavage reaction catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of Glycine to[..]

The Gram-negative oral spirochete T. denticola (Treponema denticola) is predominantly associated with the incidence and severity of human periodontal disease. T. denticola is an obligate anaerobe commonly associated with an inflammation of gum tissue that frequently precedes bone resorbtion and subsequent tooth loss of humans. T. denticola lacks a traditional LPS (Lipopolysaccharide), as do many other Spirochetes, for which these are resistant to cationic peptide antibiotics as well as to human Beta-Defensins, as these interact strongly with LPS due to its negative charge. Such a mechanism prompts T. denticola to thrive in gum tissue and affect substrate specificity and permit the utilization of amino acids and other compounds for substrate phosphorylation and ATP[..]

Rickettsial infections have played a significant role in the history of Western civilization through epidemic Typhus and Rickettsia used arthropod vector for the spread of Typhus fever. R. typhi (Rickettsia typhi) is a smaller in size than normal bacteria and obligately intracellular pathogen. However, they are true bacteria, small coccobacilli that are normally stained with Giemsa and poorly by the Gram stain. Its cell wall morphology is that of a Gram-negative bacillus. Phylogenetically a member of the Alpha-subgroup of Proteobacteria, R. typhi along with R. prowazekii (Rickettsia prowazekii) is considered to be Typhus group Rickettsia (Ref.1). R. typhi evolved in close association with its arthropod vectors, various species of fleas. In its best known zoonotic[..]

Displaying 97 to 108 (of 809 pathways)
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