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Displaying 61 to 72 (of 789 pathways)

The Gram-negative, slender spiral-shaped, motile, asaccharolytic bacterium C. jejuni (Campylobacter jejuni) is commensal in cattle, swine, and birds. Campylobacteriosis is the illness caused by C. jejuni and is often known as Campylobacter Enteritis or human bacterial Gastroenteritis. Typical symptoms of C. jejuni foodborne illness include severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, nausea, headache, and muscle pain. C. jejuni grows best at the body temperature of a bird, and seems to be well adapted to birds, which carry it without becoming ill. The bacterium is fragile. It cannot tolerate drying and can be killed by oxygen. It grows only if there is less than the atmospheric amounts of oxygen present (microaerophilic). Freezing reduces the number of Campylobacter[..]

The bacterium D. radiodurans (Deinococcus radiodurans) is a Gram-positive, red-pigmented, non-motile bacterium that shows remarkable resistance to a range of damage caused by ionizing radiation, desiccation, UV radiation, oxidizing agents, and electrophilic mutagens. D. radiodurans is best known for its extreme resistance to ionizing radiation; not only can it grow continuously in the presence of chronic radiation, but also it can survive acute exposures to Gamma radiation without dying or undergoing induced mutation. The  RecA  (Recombinase-A) protein of D. radiodurans is essential for the extreme radiation resistance of this organism. The biochemical metabolism of Glycine, Serine and Threonine provides amino acids like Glycine, which is highly essential to[..]

E. coli (Escherichia coli) is Gram-negative with external flagella. The strain E. coli CFT073 are uropathogenic and this group is responsible for Acute Cystitis and Pyelonephritis. E. coli is a remarkably diverse species because some strains living as harmless commensals in animal intestines, whereas other distinct genotypes including the enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic, enteroinvasive, enterotoxigenic, and enteroaggregative E. coli causes significant morbidity and mortality as human intestinal pathogens (Ref.1). Extra-intestinal E. coli are another varied group of life-threatening pathogens of this manifestly versatile species. This latter group of pathogens includes distinct clonal groups responsible for neonatal meningitis/sepsis and urinary tract infections.[..]

The bacterium E. coli (Escherichia coli) is one of the best and most thoroughly studied free-living organisms. It is also a remarkably diverse species because some E. coli strains live as harmless commensals in animal intestines, whereas other distinct genotypes including the enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic, enteroinvasive, enterotoxigenic, and enteroaggregative E. coli causes significant morbidity and mortality as human intestinal pathogens (Ref.1). Extra-intestinal E. coli are another varied group of life-threatening pathogens of this manifestly versatile species. This latter group of pathogens includes distinct clonal groups responsible for neonatal meningitis/sepsis and urinary tract infections. E. coli is Gram-negative, flagellated and members of the strain E.[..]

The bacterium E. coli O157 (Escherichia coli O157) is a worldwide threat to public health and are implicated in many outbreaks of Haemorrhagic Colitis, some of which included fatalities caused by Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome. The severity of disease, the lack of effective treatment and the potential for large-scale outbreaks from contaminated food supplies have propelled intensive research on the pathogenesis and detection of E. coli O157 strains and these include candidate virulence factors, alternative metabolic capacities, several prophages and other new functions-all of which could be targets for surveillance (Ref.1). The enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157 EDL933 is Gram-negative having external flagella. The involvement of D- and L-Amino acid metabolism like L-Serine,[..]

The bacterium E. coli O157 (Escherichia coli O157) is a worldwide threat to public health and are implicated in many outbreaks of Haemorrhagic Colitis, some of which included fatalities caused by Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome. The severity of disease, the lack of effective treatment and the potential for large-scale outbreaks from contaminated food supplies have propelled intensive research on the pathogenesis and detection of E. coli O157 strains and these include candidate virulence factors, alternative metabolic capacities, several prophages and other new functions-all of which could be targets for surveillance (Ref.1). The enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157 Sakai is Gram-negative, having external flagella and first derived from an outbreak in Sakai city, Japan. It[..]

E. faecalis (Enterococcus faecalis), also known as S. faecalis (Streptococcus faecalis), a Gram-positive bacterium, is a natural inhabitant of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and is found in soil, sewage, water and food, frequently through fecal contamination. It is an opportunistic pathogen that is a major cause of urinary tract infections, Bacteremia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and infective Endocarditis. It has become a nosocomial pathogen that is refractory to most therapeutic options (Ref.1). The involvement of D- and L-Amino acid metabolism like L-Serine, L-Threonine and Glycine plays a major role in cell sustenance, generation of several essential compounds, intact protein synthesis, and pathogenesis in E. faecalis (Ref.2). In E. faecalis[..]

Enterococci are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic and Lactic acid producing bacteria. Most strains are non-hemolytic. E. faecalis (Enterococcus faecalis), also known as S. faecalis (Streptococcus faecalis), the second most frequent enterococcal species, is a saprophytic commensal that inhabits the oral cavity and gastrointestinal flora of humans and animals and behaves as an opportunistic pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, Bacteremia, and bacterial Endocarditis. The increased incidence of E. faecalis infection has been related to the innate resistance of this microorganism to many commonly used antimicrobial agents and to its ability to become resistant to most, and in some cases to all, of the presently available[..]

E. carotovora (Erwinia carotovora) is a species of plant pathogenic, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria which gets its name from carrots, but it affects many other vegetables, including potatoes, cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, lettuce and even some ornamental plants like Iris. The bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae is notable for its well studied human pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella, and Escherichia spp. However, it also contains several plant pathogens. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) strain SCRI1043 is the causative agent of Soft rot and Blackleg potato diseases (Ref.1). Gram-negative bacteria employ a type of conserved signaling called Quorum Sensing. Quorum Sensing regulates as a switch controlling metabolic[..]

G. sulfurreducens (Geobacter sulfurreducens), a delta-proteobacterium, is an obligately anaerobic, non-fermentative, non-motile, Gram-negative rod. Geobacter species are of interest because of their novel electron transfer capabilities, impact on the natural environment and their application to the Bioremediation of contaminated environments and harvesting electricity from waste organic matter. G. sulfurreducens breaks down heavy metals and is being used to clean up toxic metal waste sites like Uranium, etc. Central to the metabolism of G. sulfurreducens is the ability to anaerobically oxidize Acetate (an abundant electron donor and carbon source in subsurface zones) completely to  CO2  (Carbondioxide) and water using a variety of electron acceptors including[..]

P. acnes (Propionibacterium acnes) is the most common Gram-positive, non-spore forming, anaerobic rod and a major inhabitant of adult human skin, where it resides within sebaceous follicles, usually as a harmless commensal, even though it has been implicated in Acne Vulgaris (Pimples) formation. P. acnes typically grows as an obligate anaerobe, however, some strains are aerotolerant, but still show better growth as an anaerobe. It has the ability to produce Propionic acid and Catalase along with Indole, Nitrate, or both Indole and Nitrate. The bacteria release Lipases to digest a surplus of the skin oil, Sebum. The combination of digestive products (Fatty acids) and bacterial antigens stimulates an intense local inflammation that bursts the hair follicle. Then, a[..]

Organisms vary widely in their ability to metabolize amino acids. Based on metabolic requirements amino acids are grouped as essential amino acids (that must be provided in as nutrient) and non-essential amino acids (biosynthesized in adequate amounts). Except for Glycine, all amino acids occur in two possible optical isomers, called D and L. Because of the two hydrogen atoms at the Alpha-carbon, Glycine is not optically active. The L-amino acids represent the vast majority of amino acids found in proteins, whereas, D-amino acids are found in some proteins produced by exotic sea-dwelling organisms, but are abundant components of the cell walls of bacteria (Ref.1). Amino acid metabolisms are vital for the maintenance of normal nitrogen balance in an organism. The[..]

Displaying 61 to 72 (of 789 pathways)
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