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Displaying 85 to 96 (of 789 pathways)

The genus Leptospira consists of a genetically heterogeneous group of pathogenic and saprophytic species belonging to the phylum Spirochaetales. It is the causative agent of Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution and transmission to humans occurs through contact with domestic or wild animal reservoirs or an environment contaminated by their urine. Leptospira is a flexible, spiral-shaped, Gram-negative Spirochete with internal flagella. Leptospira enters the host through mucosa and broken skin, resulting in Bacteremia. The Spirochetes multiply in organs, most commonly the Central Nervous System, kidneys, liver and conjunctiva. Infective bacteria are shed in the urine. These organisms establish themselves a commensal relationship with many animal[..]

T. maritima (Thermotoga maritima), is an anerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which usually grows singly or in pairs. The organism has an optimum growth temperature of 80 degrees centigrade. T. maritima metabolizes many simple and complex carbohydrates, keto-acids, etc. to fuels such as Hydrogen. The metabolism of amino acids like Glycine, Serine and Threonine acts as a source of carbon and energy for T. maritima by the conversion of amino acids to keto-acids and carbohydrates (Ref.1). The Glycine Cleavage System catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of Glycine in bacteria to supply one carbon units and generation of other vital amino acids like L-Serine and L-Threonine. The Glycine Cleavage reaction catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of Glycine to[..]

The Gram-negative oral spirochete T. denticola (Treponema denticola) is predominantly associated with the incidence and severity of human periodontal disease. T. denticola is an obligate anaerobe commonly associated with an inflammation of gum tissue that frequently precedes bone resorbtion and subsequent tooth loss of humans. T. denticola lacks a traditional LPS (Lipopolysaccharide), as do many other Spirochetes, for which these are resistant to cationic peptide antibiotics as well as to human Beta-Defensins, as these interact strongly with LPS due to its negative charge. Such a mechanism prompts T. denticola to thrive in gum tissue and affect substrate specificity and permit the utilization of amino acids and other compounds for substrate phosphorylation and ATP[..]

Rickettsial infections have played a significant role in the history of Western civilization through epidemic Typhus and Rickettsia used arthropod vector for the spread of Typhus fever. R. typhi (Rickettsia typhi) is a smaller in size than normal bacteria and obligately intracellular pathogen. However, they are true bacteria, small coccobacilli that are normally stained with Giemsa and poorly by the Gram stain. Its cell wall morphology is that of a Gram-negative bacillus. Phylogenetically a member of the Alpha-subgroup of Proteobacteria, R. typhi along with R. prowazekii (Rickettsia prowazekii) is considered to be Typhus group Rickettsia (Ref.1). R. typhi evolved in close association with its arthropod vectors, various species of fleas. In its best known zoonotic[..]

R. conorii (Rickettsia conorii) causes Mediterranean Spotted Fever in humans, which is transmitted by brown dog ticks. Rickettsia are obligate intracellular bacteria normally living in arthropod cells. Rickettsia  are true bacteria, small coccobacilli that are normally stained with Giemsa and poorly by the Gram stain. Its cell wall morphology is that of a Gram-negative bacillus. Phylogenetically R. conorii  is a member of the Alpha-subgroup of Proteobacteria (Ref.1). The bacterium is closely related to R. prowazekii (Rickettsia prowazekii), which causes Typhus. R. conorii has a relatively small genome, in part because it tends to inactivate its own genes when it use of genes from its host. The R. conorii genome has 1.3 million base pairs and 1,374 genes,[..]

R. prowazekii (Rickettsia prowazekii) is smaller in size than normal bacteria and is an obligately intracellular pathogen that use arthropod vector for the spread of epidemic Typhus fever.  However, they are true bacteria, small coccobacilli that are normally stained with Giemsa and poorly by the Gram stain. Its cell wall morphology is that of a Gram-negative bacillus (Ref.1). Phylogenetically a member of the Alpha-subgroup of Proteobacteria, R. prowazekii along with R. typhi (Rickettsia typhi) is considered to be Typhus group Rickettsia. R. prowazekii evolved in close association with its arthropod vector, the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. R. prowazekii do not spread effectively to other cells until their intracellular growth by binary fission[..]

S. typhi (Salmonella typhi) or S. enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi) is the aetiological agent of Typhoid fever, a serious invasive bacterial disease of humans. Many S. enterica serovars actively invade the mucosal surface of the intestine but are normally contained in healthy individuals by the local immune defence mechanisms. However, S. typhi has the ability to spread to the deeper tissues of humans, including liver, spleen and bone marrow (Ref.1). The most studied S. enterica serovar Typhi strains are Ty2 and strain CT18. The two strains exhibit differences in prophages, insertion sequences, and island structures. While CT18 carries two plasmids, one conferring multiple drug resistance, Ty2 has no plasmids and is sensitive to antibiotics.[..]

Salmonella are important pathogens in humans and animals. S. choleraesuis (Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis) is a highly invasive serovar among non-typhoidal Salmonella and usually cause systemic human Salmonellosis without Diarrhea and septicemic Salmonellosis and Enterocolitis in pigs (Ref.1). S. choleraesuis infections are difficult to treat because of the multidrug-resistant genes. S. choleraesuis has 151 pseudogenes, which, among the three Salmonella genomes, include the highest percentage of pseudogenes arising from the genes involved in bacterial Chemotaxis and signal-transduction pathways. These flagellated, Gram-negative bacilli utilize small peptides as nutrients, Chemoattractants, and Quorum Sensing signals, and their metabolism is a target for[..]

S. enterica (Salmonella enterica) serovars often have a broad host range and some cause both gastrointestinal and systemic disease. S. paratyphi (Salmonella paratyphi) is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family; it is a Gram-negative motile, aerobic rod which is facultatively anaerobic. The serovar Paratyphi A or S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A is restricted to humans and causes only systemic disease (Ref.1). After entering the small intestine wall, the Salmonella invades through the lymphatic system to the lymph nodes and after a period of multiplication invades the blood stream. From there the bacteria invade the liver, gall bladder, spleen, kidney and bone marrow where it multiplies and causes infection of these organs. From here they again invade the blood stream[..]

S. typhimurium (Salmonella enterica subspecies I, serovar Typhimurium), is a leading cause of human Gastroenteritis, and is used in mouse models of human Typhoid fever. The genus Salmonella comprises two species: S. enterica, which is subdivided into over 2,000 serovars, and S. bongori (Salmonella bongori). Some serovars of S. enterica, such as S. typhi, cause systemic infections and Typhoid fever, whereas others, such as S. typhimurium, cause Gastroenteritis. Some serovars, such as S. typhi, are host specialists that infect only humans, whereas others such as S. typhimurium are host generalists that occur in humans and many other mammalian species. Domestic animals act as a reservoir for the food-borne spread of host-generalist serovars, which accounts for the high[..]

Shigella is pathogenic only for humans and the strains are unusual among enteric bacteria in their ability to gain access to the epithelial cell cytosol, where they replicate and spread directly into adjacent cells. It causes disease by invading the epithelium of the colon, resulting in an intense acute inflammatory response. Shigella species are Gram-negative, non-sporulating and facultative anaerobes. S. flexneri (Shigella flexneri) lacks surface structures such as flagella, fimbriae, and curli. Entry into epithelial cells occurs by an engulfment of the host cell membrane at the interaction points with bacteria. Shigella strains contain a large virulence plasmid that is known to encode genes required and sufficient for invasion of epithelial cells. Genes on a[..]

The organism T. thermophilus HB8 (Thermus thermophilus HB8) is a Gram-negative eubacterium that grows in a natural thermal environment with temperatures ranging from 50 to 82 degrees Centigrade. Unlike other extreme anaerobic thermophiles, the Thermus species are an exception, as they are strict aerobic chemorganotrophs. Although aerobic, T. thermophilus HB8 can also grow under anaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate due to synthesis of the nitrate reductase complex encoded by the nar operon. Expression from this operon is induced under low oxygen concentrations only when nitrate is present. Thermophilic organisms, like the vast majority of other microorganisms, accumulate compatible solutes in response to water stress imposed by salt (Ref.1 & 2). These[..]

Displaying 85 to 96 (of 789 pathways)


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