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Displaying 49 to 60 (of 812 pathways)

ERK5 (also known as the BMK1 (Big MAP Kinase-1)) is an atypical MAPK that can be activated in vivo by a variety of stimuli, including Serum, Growth factors including EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor), NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) and BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors), Lysophosphatidic Acid, Neurotrophins and Phorbol ester and some Cellular stress such as Oxidative and Osmotic Shock. MAPK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) cascades play important roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. They are also important for many physiological functions in several systems, including in developmental, immune and neuronal systems. At least 12 isoforms of MAPKs exist in mammalian[..]

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is biologically aggressive neoplasms which have an elevated, often aberrant, proliferative capacity with a diffuse pattern of brain invasion. It is the most malignant Astrocytic tumor, composed of poorly differentiated neoplastic astrocytes. The World Health Organization (WHO) grading system classifies Gliomas into Grades I-IV based on the degree of malignancy, as determined by histopathological criteria. In the Central Nervous System (CNS), Grade-I Gliomas generally behave in a benign fashion and might even be circumscribed, whereas Grade-II, Grade-III and Grade-IV Gliomas are malignant and diffusely infiltrate throughout the brain. Glioblastoma Multiforme falls under the Grade-IV category. Glioblastoma Multiforme or the WHO Grade-IV[..]

ILK(Integrin-linked kinase) is a key scaffold protein that localizes to focal adhesions, acts as a central component of a heterotrimer (the ILK–PINCH–parvin complex). Since its discovery, ILK has been demonstrated to have an essential role in connecting the cytoplasmic tail of β subunits of integrins to the actin cytoskeleton, and in regulating actin polymerization. Within this pivotal position, ILK has been shown to interact with many intracellular proteins through PINCH or parvin to mediate diverse arrays of biological events,or to mediate cell responses induced by the interaction of integrins with the ECM(extracellular matrix)(Ref.1). Several adaptor proteins with Actin binding properties interact with the C-terminus (COOH-terminus) of ILK.[..]

In response to Retinoic Acid (a metabolite of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), which affects gene transcription), target genes are regulated by two families of nuclear receptors, the RARs (Retinoic Acid Receptors) and the RXRs (Retinoid X Receptors) that bind as RAR/RXR heterodimers to response elements located in their promoters. The all-trans-Retinoic Acid, the Carboxylic Acid form of Vitamin-A is of biological significance since it is predominant under most physiological situations and explains all of the biological effects of Vitamin-A (Ref.1). Biologically active ligands for the RARs include all-trans-Retinoic Acid, 9-cis-Retinoic Acid among others, yet circulating levels of 9-cis-Retinoic Acid are much lower than those of all-trans-Retinoic Acid and the[..]

Influenza (mostly referred to as “flu”) is a contagious viral infection caused primarily by the influenza virus A or B. It affects mainly the upper respiratory organs (i.e., the nose, throat, bronchi, and infrequently, lungs) but other organs such as the heart, brain, and muscles can be involved. It occurs worldwide and causes considerable morbidity and mortality with pandemic, epidemic, or seasonal patterns. Typical Influenza illness includes fever and respiratory symptoms, such as cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, as well as headache, muscle aches, and often extreme fatigue. Although nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea can sometimes accompany Influenza infection, especially in children, these symptoms are rarely the primary symptoms. Most people[..]

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels that requires long-term medical attention both to limit the development of its devastating complications and to manage them when they do occur. The pancreatic Beta-cell and its secretory product insulin are central in the pathophysiology of diabetes. There are two main types of diabetes, Type-I, which is insulin dependent, and Type-II, which is non-insulin dependent. Type-II diabetes is a complex and heterogeneous disease caused by both environmental and genetic factors. It maybe of various forms each of which is characterized by variable degrees of insulin resistance and Beta-cell dysfunction, and which together lead to hyperglycemia. At each end of this spectrum are single gene[..]

Poliovirus is a member of the Picornaviridae family, which includes a number of significant pathogens of humans (e.g., Rhinoviruses, Coxsackieviruses, Echoviruses, Enteroviruses, and Hepatitis-A virus) and livestock (e.g., foot-and-mouth disease viruses). Poliovirus has three known serotypes: PV1, PV2, and PV3 and all three serotypes can cause poliomyelitis, a paralytic disease resulting from the destruction of motor neurons in the CNS (Central Nervous System )(Ref.1). All the three serotypes of Poliovirus recognize a common cellular receptor, CD155 (or PVR, Poliovirus Receptor), for cell attachment and entry. CD155 is a trans-membrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin super family. CD155 also functions as a cell adhesion protein and aids in transendothelial[..]

Poxviridae is a family of viruses containing large double-stranded DNA genomes of 130,000 to >300,000 nucleotides.  Humans, vertebrates, and arthropods serve as natural hosts. Poxviridae viral particles (virions) are generally enveloped (external enveloped virion), though the intracellular mature virion form of the virus, which contains different envelope, is also infectious. They vary in their shape depending upon the species but are generally shaped like a brick or as an oval form similar to a rounded brick because they are wrapped by the endoplasmic reticulum. The virion is exceptionally large its size is around 200 nm in diameter and 300 nm in length and carries its genome in a single, linear, double-stranded segment of DNA. By comparison, Rhinovirus is[..]

HBV(Hepatitis B virus) is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae. It is a hepatotropic non-cytopathic DNA virus and is a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. As HBV itself is currently viewed as a non-cytopathic virus, the liver pathology associated with hepatitis B is mainly thought to be due to immune responses directed against HBV antigens. The outcome of HBV infection is the result of complex interactions between replicating HBV and the immune system.Both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system are generally involved in responding to the viral infection, with innate responses being important for control of viral replication and dissemination very early after infection, as well as for timely orchestration of virus-specific adaptive responses.[..]

HBV (Hepatitis-B Virus) belongs to a family of closely related DNA viruses called the Hepadnaviruses. Included in this family are the WHV (Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus), the DHBV (Duck Hepatitis-B Virus) and several other avian and mammalian variants. Hepadnaviruses have a strong preference for infecting liver cells, but small amounts of hepadnaviral DNA can be found in kidney, pancreas, and mononuclear cells. However, infection at these sites is not linked to extra hepatic disease (Ref.1). The HBV nucleocapsid contains a relatively small and partially duplex 3.2 Kb circular DNA, viral polymerase and core protein. The genome has only four long open reading frames. The preS–S (presurface–surface) region of the genome encodes the three viral surface antigens by[..]

A cell must selectively translocate molecules across its plasma membrane to maintain the chemical composition of its cytoplasm distinct from that of the surrounding milieu. The most intriguing and, arguably, the most important membrane proteins for this purpose are the ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters. These proteins, found in all species, use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate specific substrates across cellular membranes. The chemical nature of the substrates handled by ABC transporters is extremely diverse--from inorganic ions to sugars and large polypeptides--yet ABC transporters are highly conserved (Ref.1).Transporters have been classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary active transporters. Secondary or tertiary active transporters, such as[..]

ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are a large superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in the cellular export or import of a wide variety of different substances, including ions, lipids, cyclic nucleotides, peptides, and proteins. ABC transporters are systemically classified into eight subfamilies by sequence similarity, i.e., ABCA (ABC1), ABCB (MDR/TAP), ABCC (MRP/CFTR), ABCD (ALD), ABCE (RNAseLI/OABP), ABCF (GCN20), ABCG (White) and ANSA subclass. In general, the transmembrane part of ABC transporters contains a polar channel formed by two homologous domains, each usually consisting of five (uptake transporters) or six (efflux transporters) transmembrane alpha-helices (Ref.1 & 2). Typically, ABC proteins are relatively specific for a[..]

Displaying 49 to 60 (of 812 pathways)
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