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Displaying 49 to 60 (of 789 pathways)

The Gram-negative, slender spiral-shaped, motile, asaccharolytic bacterium C. jejuni (Campylobacter jejuni) is commensal in cattle, swine, and birds. Campylobacteriosis is the illness caused by C. jejuni and is often known as Campylobacter Enteritis or human bacterial Gastroenteritis. Typical symptoms of C. jejuni foodborne illness include severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, nausea, headache, and muscle pain. C. jejuni grows best at the body temperature of a bird, and seems to be well adapted to birds, which carry it without becoming ill. The bacterium is fragile. It cannot tolerate drying and can be killed by oxygen. It grows only if there is less than the atmospheric amounts of oxygen present (microaerophilic). Freezing reduces the number of Campylobacter[..]

The genome of C. jejuni RM1221 (Campylobacter jejuni RM1221) is a single circular chromosome, 1,777,831 bp in length, with an average G+C content of 30.31 percent. There are a total of 1,884 predicted coding regions in the genome with an average ORF (Open Reading Frame) length of 885 bp. The genomic structure of C. jejuni RM1221 is syntenic with the genome of C. jejuni NCTC11168. C. jejuni RM1221 is isolated from a chicken carcass. There are a number of unique features present in C. jejuni RM1221, which do not occur in the previously sequenced C. jejuni strain NCTC11168, including the colonization and invasion factors, unique LOS (Lipooligosaccharide) and capsule loci, and other unique ORFs. In general, the Gram-negative, slender spiral-shaped, motile, asaccharolytic[..]

C. perfringens (Clostridium perfringens) is a common Gram-positive endosporeforming, non-motile, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacillus and is known to produce a variety of toxins and enzymes that are responsible for severe myonecrotic lesions. Spores survive cooking and then germinate and multiply during storage at ambient temperature, slow cooling, or inadequate re-warming. Though its natural habitats are soil and the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, it has been isolated from virtually every environment examined for its presence. C. perfringens is a human pathogen, capable of causing illness either through wound infection or food-borne intoxication (Ref.1). Alpha-toxin is regarded as the most medically important toxin produced by C. perfringens; it is the toxin[..]

Members of genus Clostridium are Gram-positive, spore-forming rods that are anaerobic. These bacteria includes both motile and non-motile bacillus with ubiquitous distribution in nature and are especially fond of soil. Clostridium shows optimimum growth when plated on blood agar at human body temperatures. When the environment becomes stressed, however, the bacteria produce spores that tolerate the extreme conditions that the active bacteria cannot. In their active form, these bacteria secrete powerful exotoxins that are responsible for such diseases as Tetanus, Botulism, and  Gas  gangrene (Ref.1). The solventogenic Clostridia like C. acetobutylicum (Clostridium acetobutylicum) continue to be the subject of numerous studies, including recent efforts to apply[..]

Tetanus disease is one of the most dramatic and globally prevalent diseases of humans and vertebrate animals. The manifestation of the disease, spastic paralysis, is caused by the second most poisonous substance known, the Tetanus toxin (Ref.1). The causative agent of Tetanus disease is C. tetani (Clostridium tetani), an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, whose natural habitat is soil, dust, and the intestinal tracts of various animals and which enters the host through wound sites. Comparative genomics reveals a remarkable capacity of C. tetani to rely on extensive sodium ion bioenergetics (Ref.2). C. tetani anaerobically utilize amino acids as an energy source. It carries out fermentation of L-Serine if no additional Hydrogen donor or acceptor is[..]

Tetanus disease is one of the most dramatic and globally prevalent diseases of humans and vertebrate animals. The manifestation of the disease, spastic paralysis, is caused by the second most poisonous substance known, the Tetanus toxin (Ref.1). The causative agent of Tetanus disease is C. tetani (Clostridium tetani), an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium, whose natural habitat is soil, dust, and the intestinal tracts of various animals and which enters the host through wound sites. Comparative genomics reveals a remarkable capacity of C. tetani to rely on extensive sodium ion bioenergetics. C. tetani anaerobically utilize amino acids as an energy source. As is the case in other Gram-positive bacteria, the cell wall of C. tetani is a unique biopolymer,[..]

Marine unicellular Cyanobacteria of the Synechococcus group occupy an important position at the base of the marine food chain. They are abundant in the world's oceans and as a result are one of the most numerous genomes on earth. They have the ability to acquire major nutrients and trace metals from the sub-micromolar concentrations found in the oligotrophic open seas and their light-harvesting apparatus is uniquely adapted to the spectral quality of light in the ocean. Synechococcus utilizes Chlorophyll-A. Marine unicellular Cyanobacteria are responsible for an estimated 20-40 percent of Chlorophyll biomass and Carbon fixation in the oceans. Open ocean isolates of Synechococcus possess a unique type of swimming motility not seen in any other type of micro-organism;[..]

Marine unicellular Cyanobacteria of the Synechococcus group occupy an important position at the base of the marine food chain. They are abundant in the world's oceans and as a result are one of the most numerous genomes on earth. They have the ability to acquire major nutrients and trace metals from the sub-micromolar concentrations found in the oligotrophic open seas and theiSynechococcus light-harvesting apparatus is uniquely adapted to the spectral quality of light in the ocean. Synechococcus utilizes Chlorophyll-A. Marine unicellular Cyanobacteria are responsible for an estimated 20-40 percent of Chlorophyll biomass and Carbon fixation in the oceans (Ref.1). Open ocean isolates of Synechococcus possess a unique type of swimming motility not seen in any other[..]

Cyanobacteria are photoatutrophic micro-organisms occuring in all photic environments. It is widely accepted that Cyanobacterial type endosymbiont are the ancestor of Chloroplasts in higher plants. Synechocystiae are unicellular, photoautotrophic, facultative glucose-heterotrophic cyanobacteria. They are oxygenic photosynthetic with two photosystems at their disposal, similar to those in Algae and Plants, and they fix atmospheric Nitrogen. Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 grows in the absence of Photosynthesis if a suitable fixed-carbon source such as Glucose is provided. Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 is a unicellular Cyanobacterium with a light-dependent cell cycle and contains six to eight chromosome copies (Ref.1). This strain is easily transformable, and capable of[..]

Cyanobacteria are photoatutrophic micro-organisms occuring in all photic environments. It is widely accepted that Cyanobacterial type endosymbiont are the ancestor of Chloroplasts in higher plants. Synechocystiae are unicellular, photoautotrophic, facultative glucose-heterotrophic cyanobacteria. They are oxygenic photosynthetic with two photosystems at their disposal, similar to those in Algae and Plants, and they fix atmospheric Nitrogen. Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 grows in the absence of Photosynthesis if a suitable fixed-carbon source such as Glucose is provided. Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 is a unicellular Cyanobacterium with a light-dependent cell cycle and contains six to eight chromosome copies (Ref.1). This strain is easily transformable, and capable of[..]

D. psychrophila (Desulfotalea psychrophila) is a sulfate-reducing Gram-negative Delta-proteobacterium that is able to grow at temperatures below 0°C, i.e., psychrophilic and reside mostly in cold arctic marine sediments. The main mode of energy generation in D. psychrophila is sulfate reduction through fermentation. Investigating the biochemical mechanisms of such sulfate-reducing psychrophilic bacteria is vital for understanding the functioning of global biogeochemical cycles. The common fermentation products that occur in marine sediments are Acetate, Propionate, Butyrate, Lactate and Hydrogen. These bacteria utilize Pyruvate, Lactate, Alcohols and Hydrogen as carbon or energy sources. The metabolism of vital amino acids like Glycine, Serine and Threonine acts as[..]

D. vulgaris (Desulfovibrio vulgaris) is a Gram-negative, anaerobic, non-spore forming, curved rod-shaped bacteria, isolated from soil, animal intestines and feces, and fresh and salt water. The distinguishing characteristics of Desulfovibrio species are that they contain Desulfoviridin, a multimeric-dissimilatory sulfite reductase. D. vulgaris Hildenborough oxidize their energy source to that of Acetate and excrete this as their end product. Desulfovibrio also uses Hydrogen, Lactate, and Pyruvate as electron donors and this genus can grow easily on a Sulfate-Lactate medium in the absence of Oxygen. The biochemical processes like metabolism of Glycine, Seine and Threonine provides Acetate, Lactate and Pyruvate by converting amino acids to Pyruvate. During metabolism[..]

Displaying 49 to 60 (of 789 pathways)
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