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Displaying 109 to 120 (of 789 pathways)

The hair follicle is a three-dimensional tube, composed mainly of epithelial cells that protrude down through the epidermis and dermis of the skin, enveloping at its base the mesenchyme-derived dermal papilla. These hair follicle acts as a sensory organ and immunologic sentinel for the skin. Hairs detect mechanical stimuli above the surface of the skin, and the slightest bend in a hair activates Neuroreceptors in the follicle, relaying important sensory information to the Nervous System. The Langerhans' cells (Dendritic Antigen-Presenting Cells) at the opening of the follicle detect surface pathogens and activate the immune system. The hair follicle has a complex immunologic profile, with immunologically "privileged" matrix at its base, and a complement of[..]

Hepatitis-C Virus (HCV) belongs to the Flaviviridae family and is the leading cause of chronic liver disease globally. It is estimated to infect about 170 million people around the world (WHO, 1997). Chronic HCV infection frequently leads to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and is associated with the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Acute infection occurs in only a few patients. In most cases the virus results in chronic infection taking 10–20 years before the emergence of liver disease, which is often accompanied by only mild or vague symptoms. Despite the seemingly benign onset of the disease, a significant number of patients with chronic hepatitis develop cirrhosis and its complications.HCV infects only humans and chimpanzees; there are no small-animal models.[..]

The CD1 (Thymocyte Antigen CD1) antigen presentation system presents lipid and glycolipid antigens to effector T-Cells, which have diverse roles in Antimicrobial responses, Antitumor immunity and in regulating the balance between Tolerance and Autoimmunity. CD1, a conserved family of MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)-like glycoproteins in mammals, specializes in capturing lipid rather than peptide antigen for presentation to T-lymphocytes (Ref.1). The CD1 family consists of five isoforms of non-polymorphic lipid antigen-presenting molecules, which are classified into two groups: Group-I (CD1A, CD1B, CD1C, and CD1E) and Group-II (CD1D), based on similarities between nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Topologically, they resemble the classical peptide[..]

Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Economic development and urbanization have promoted habits of diet rich in saturated fat and diminished physical activity, which favors atherosclerosis. Traditionally two types of atherosclerosis are described, spontaneous and accelerated. Accelerated atherosclerosis mainly occurs in patients after heart transplant, CABG (coronary artery bypass graft), and PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) [Ref.1]. The normal artery contains three layers. The inner layer, the tunica intima, is lined by a monolayer of endothelial cells that is in contact[..]

ABA (Abscisic Acid) is a plant hormone that plays important role during many phases of the plant life cycle, including seed development and dormancy, embryo maturation, cell division and elongation, and in plant responses to various environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, cold, pathogen attack and UV radiation. However, despite the name, it does not appear to control Abscission directly; the presence of ABA in Abscising organs reflects its role in promoting senescence and/or stress responses, the processes preceding Abscission. ABA is a sesquiterpenoid (C15H20O4) with one asymmetric, optically active Carbon atom at C-1'f. The naturally occurring form is S-(+)-ABA; the side chain of ABA is by definition 2-cis,-4-trans. Trans, trans-ABA is biologically[..]

B. melitensis (Brucella melitensis) is a Gram-negative, aerobic, facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in goats and sheep and Malta fever in humans. Species in the genus Brucella are the etiological agents of Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease endemic in many areas of the world, characterized by chronic infections in animals leading to abortion and infertility, and a systemic, febrile illness in humans. Brucella is facultative intracellular pathogens that enter the host through mucosal surfaces and are able to survive inside macrophages (Ref.1 & 2). The presence of S-LPS (Smooth Lipopolysaccharide) is an important virulence factor of these organisms. The role of the O-side chain or O-antigen of S-LPS in the survival of Brucella has not been[..]

Species in the genus Brucella are the etiological agents of Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease endemic in many areas of the world, characterized by chronic infections in animals leading to abortion and infertility, and a systemic, febrile illness in humans. Brucella is facultative intracellular pathogens that enter the host through mucosal surfaces and are able to survive inside macrophages. B. suis (Brucella suis) is the first Gram-negative pathogenic organism weaponized as a potential bioterrorism agent (Ref.1). The presence of S-LPS (Smooth Lipopolysaccharide) is an important virulence factor of these organisms. The role of the O-side chain or O-antigen of S-LPS in the survival of Brucella has not been clearly defined; however it might provide a protective mechanism in[..]

GAs (Gibberellic Acids or Gibberellins) form a large family of diterpenoid compounds, some of which are bioactive growth regulators, which control diverse developmental processes such as seed germination, stem elongation, leaf expansion, trichome development, and flower and fruit development. Gibberellins are classified on the basis of structure as well as function. All Gibberellins are derived from the ent-Gibberellane skeleton. The Gibberellins are named GA1.... GAn in order of discovery. GA3 (Gibberellin-3) is the first Gibberellin to be structurally characterized. There are currently 136 GAs identified from plants, fungi and bacteria. GAs are widespread and so far ubiquitous in both flowering (Angiosperms) and non-flowering (Gymnosperms) plants as well as ferns. GA[..]

Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, and Azorhizobium-collectively known as rhizobia, are Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing bacteria of agronomic importance because they perform nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous plants (soybean, alfalfa, beans, peas, etc). The metabolism of amino acids like Glycine is indispensable for functioning of one-carbon metabolism and for the establishment of a fully effective, nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in M. loti (Mesorhizobium loti). Glycine acts as a source of other vital amino acids like L-Serine and L-Threonine. It also contributes to the one-carbon pool, to formation of Glutathione, to Purine nucleotides, and to Porphyrins. Purine Metabolism may also form a source of Glycine. Direct routes of Glycine[..]

R. baltica (Rhodopirellula baltica) is a marine, aerobic, heterotrophic representative of the globally distributed and environmentally important bacterial order Planctomycetales. They catalyze important transformations in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. From a phylogenetic perspective the order Planctomycetales forms an independent, monophyletic phylum of the domain Bacteria. These are thought to be the deepest branching bacterial phylum. Planctomycetes are unique in many other respects. Their cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan, the main structural polymer of most members of the domain Bacteria. They show a unique cell compartmentalization in which a single membrane separates a peripheral ribosome-free paryphoplasm from the inner riboplasm (pirellulosome).[..]

T. tengcongensis (Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis) is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, anaerobic eubacterium that metabolizes sugars as the principal source of energy and carbon source, and gains energy anaerobically by Sulfur respiration. T. tengcongensis has a complete collection of genes involved in most of the amino acid biosynthetic pathways for Threonine, Valine, Leucine, Histidine, Phenylalanine/Tyrosine, Tryptophan, Arginine and Methionine. However, it lacks a few key genes such as Threonine Dehydratase for Isoleucine biosynthesis and Ornithine Cyclodeaminase for Proline biosynthesis. For nucleotide metabolism, it also has a complete set of genes for Purine biosynthesis, Purine salvage, and Pyrimidine biosynthesis pathways (Ref.1). In the direction of L-Threonine[..]

One of the most interesting and perhaps best-studied plant bacterial interactions is between rhizobial species and economically important leguminous plants (soybean, alfalfa, beans, peas, etc.). Rhizobia are generally described as root-nodule-forming nitrogen-fixing symbionts belonging to one of five species, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Azorhizobium, and Mesorhizobium. The S. meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) genome consists of a circular chromosome and two large circular elements (mega plasmids), one of which is essential for growth and Quorum-sensing (Ref.1 & 2). In this Gram-negative bacterium the metabolism of amino acids like Glycine is indispensable for functioning of one-carbon metabolism and for the establishment of a fully effective,[..]

Displaying 109 to 120 (of 789 pathways)
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