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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 121 to 132 (of 505 pathways)

As an axon grows, the growth cone at its advancing edge encounters specific ‘choice points’ at which guidance cues steer specific axons towards their appropriate destinations. Such cues may attract a subset of axons towards a given domain, repel axons from inappropriate target regions or simply provide a permissive substrate for axonal outgrowth. There are many different ways in which a guidance signal might intervene to steer the growth cone. For example, a guidance cue might promote the initiation, extension, stabilization, or retraction of individual filopodia, or the capture or stabilization of microtubules in specific regions of the growth cone. In each of these cases, guidance signals must be relayed through the growth cone to the actin[..]

BRs (Brassinosteroids) are Plant Steroid Hormones that influence a wide range of important Developmental and Physiological processes, including Regulation of Gene Expression, Cell Division and Expansion, Differentiation, Programmed Cell Death, and Homeostasis. The regulation of these processes by BRs, acting together with other plant hormones, leads to the promotion of Stem Elongation and Pollen tube Growth, Leaf Bending and Epinasty, Root Growth Inhibition, Proton-Pump Activation, and Xylem Differentiation. The pathways of BR biosynthesis have been elucidated by a series of detailed biochemical studies. The biosynthetic pathway to BL (Brassinolide), the biologically most active BR, can be divided into General Sterol Synthesis (Cycloartenol to Campesterol), and the[..]

Plant growth and development are ruled by environmental and endogenous signals, which are integrated through genetic networks that finally act on the division, expansion, and differentiation of cells to generate specific developmental patterns. BRs (Brassinosteroids) are steroid hormones belonging to the group of endogenous signals required for plant growth and organogenesis, controlling processes such as Cell Expansion, Vascular Differentiation, Etiolation and Reproductive Development. In addition to a role in Plant growth and development, BR has been also implicated in the modulation of Plant Stress Responses, including Enhancement of Chilling, Thermo, Salt-tolerance and Protection of Plant from the Mild Drought Injury and Pathogen Attack. Plants those are defective[..]

Phagocytosis, defined as the cellular uptake of particulates (>0.5 m) within a plasma-membrane envelope, is closely related to and partly overlaps the endocytosis of soluble ligands by fluid-phase macropinocytic and receptor pathways. The uptake of exogenous particles (heterophagy) has features in common with autophagy, an endogenous process of sequestration and lysosomal disposal of damaged intracellular organelles. There is a spectrum of uptake mechanisms depending on the particle size, multiplicity of receptor-ligand interactions, and involvement of the cytoskeleton. Once internalized, the phagosome vacuole can fuse selectively with primary lysosomes or the product of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex, to form a secondary phagolysosome. This pathway[..]

Steroid hormones are crucial substances for the proper functioning of the body. They mediate a wide variety of vital physiological functions ranging from anti-inflammatory agents to regulating events during pregnancy. Typically, endocrinologists classify steroid hormones into five major groups, based primarily on the receptor to which they bind, and the physiological outcomes: (i) Glucocorticoids (Anti-Stress Hormones), Cortisol is the major representative in most mammals; Mineralocorticoids (Ion Uptake Regulators), Aldosterone being most prominent; Androgens (Male Sex Hormones), such as Androstenedione and Testosterone; Estrogens (Female Sex Hormones), including Estrodiol and Estrone; and, Progestogens (progestational hormones), such as Progesterone. The steroid[..]

Somatostatin is a widely distributed peptide hormone that plays an important inhibitory role in several biological processes, including neurotransmission, exocrine and endocrine secretions, and cell proliferation (Ref.1). Somatostatin acts via a family of five GPCRs (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) SSTR1-SSTR5 (Somatostatin Receptors) that are variably expressed throughout numerous tissues ranging from the CNS (Central Nervous System) to the Endocrine and Immune Systems. Somatostatin antiproliferative action results either from inhibition of trophic or growth factors secretion or from interference with the normal Cell Cycle Progression. Among the five Somatostatin receptors, SSTR2 (Somatostatin Receptor-2) plays a critical role in the negative control of normal and Tumor[..]

Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, is the major cause of morbidity and mortality from CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in much of the world’s population. The disease involves the formation of Plaques in arterial walls that narrow the arterial passage, restricting blood flow and increasing the risk of occlusion of blood flow by a myocardial infarction. There is now a consensus that Atherosclerosis represents a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in the vascular wall. The Oxidative Modification hypothesis predicts LDL (Low-Density Lipoproteins) oxidation as an early event in Atherosclerosis, and oxidized LDL as one of the important contributors of Atherogenesis (Ref.1, 2 &[..]

The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors. Malignant Liver Tumors fall into two types: Primary and Metastatic. While Primary Liver tumors such as HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma) originate in the liver itself, Metastatic or Secondary Liver Tumors commpnly known as “Liver Metastases” are cancerous tumors that originate at sites remote from the liver and spread to the liver via the bloodstream. As filtration of blood is one of the main functions of Liver, cancer cells from other parts of the body have easy access to the Liver. It provides a fertile platform in which Metastases can establish, not only because of its rich, dual blood supply but also because of humoral factors that promote cell growth. Metastasis is the most common neoplasm in[..]

DRPLA (Dentatorubropallidoluysian Atrophy) is a Rare Neurodegenerative Disorder that usually is inherited in an Autosomal Dominant pattern. The Clinical symptoms are variable depending on the age of onset of the disease Myoclonus, Epilepsy, and Mental Retardation are the main symptoms in Juvenile Onset, whereas Cerebellar Ataxia, Choreoathetosis, and Dementia are seen in Adult Onset. Neuropathologically, a combined degeneration of the Dentatorubral and Pallidoluysian systems is a characteristic feature of DRPLA. The disease is caused by an expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding PolyQ (Polyglutamine) in the Atrophin-1 gene, on Chromosome 12 (Ref.1).Atrophin-1, the DRPLA gene product, encodes a Hydrophilic 1184-amino acid protein with several simple repetitive[..]

C. neoformans (Cryptococcus neoformans) is a Basidiomycetous fungus and a significant human pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its importance as an opportunistic pathogen has increased in the past two decades, largely as a result of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), cancer chemotherapy and immuno-suppression for organ transplants. Infections begin in the lung following inhalation of small, dessicated yeast cells or spores, both of which are small enough to fit into the alveoli of the lung. The organism then spreads via the blood to other organs, especially the CNS (Central Nervous System). Survival in the CNS is enhanced by the presence of abundant neurotransmitters that are scavenged as the diphenolic precursors to synthesize the virulence factor Melanin[..]

U. maydis (Ustilago maydis) is a ubiquitous pathogen of corn. Pathogenesis, dimorphic growth and sexual development are intricately interconnected in the corn Smut fungus U. maydis, and the perception of signals from the host plant plays an important role in these processes. The life cycle of U. maydis is characterized by a dimorphic switch between a haploid yeast-like cell form, known as sporidia, and an infectious filamentous dikaryon (Ref.1). Mating in U. maydis is regulated by two signaling systems; cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) Signaling and MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) Cascade (also known as the Pheromone Response Pathway). The cAMP Signaling and MAPK Cascade are crucial for the sexual development and virulence of U. maydis. Sexual[..]

cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) signaling regulates appressorium formation in the Rice Blast fungus M. grisea (Magnaporthe grisea). Both saprophytic and pathogenic growth of M. grisea is regulated by AC (Adenylate Cyclase)/Mac1 but different effectors of cAMP mediate downstream effects specific for either cell morphogenesis or pathogenesis. M. grisea causes a devasting fungal disease of rice plants known as Rice Blast through appressorium (or infection tube) formation. cAMP mediates its effect on appressorium formation through PKA (Protein Kinase-A). A well-characterized intracellular target of cAMP in eukaryotic cells is the Regulatory subunit of PKA (Ref.1). The cAMP signaling which is required for growth and pathogenesis in M. grisea diverges at the[..]

Displaying 121 to 132 (of 505 pathways)


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