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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 121 to 132 (of 500 pathways)

Somatostatin is a widely distributed peptide hormone that plays an important inhibitory role in several biological processes, including neurotransmission, exocrine and endocrine secretions, and cell proliferation (Ref.1). Somatostatin acts via a family of five GPCRs (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) SSTR1-SSTR5 (Somatostatin Receptors) that are variably expressed throughout numerous tissues ranging from the CNS (Central Nervous System) to the Endocrine and Immune Systems. Somatostatin antiproliferative action results either from inhibition of trophic or growth factors secretion or from interference with the normal Cell Cycle Progression. Among the five Somatostatin receptors, SSTR2 (Somatostatin Receptor-2) plays a critical role in the negative control of normal and Tumor[..]

Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, is the major cause of morbidity and mortality from CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in much of the world’s population. The disease involves the formation of Plaques in arterial walls that narrow the arterial passage, restricting blood flow and increasing the risk of occlusion of blood flow by a myocardial infarction. There is now a consensus that Atherosclerosis represents a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in the vascular wall. The Oxidative Modification hypothesis predicts LDL (Low-Density Lipoproteins) oxidation as an early event in Atherosclerosis, and oxidized LDL as one of the important contributors of Atherogenesis (Ref.1, 2 &[..]

The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors. Malignant Liver Tumors fall into two types: Primary and Metastatic. While Primary Liver tumors such as HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma) originate in the liver itself, Metastatic or Secondary Liver Tumors commpnly known as “Liver Metastases” are cancerous tumors that originate at sites remote from the liver and spread to the liver via the bloodstream. As filtration of blood is one of the main functions of Liver, cancer cells from other parts of the body have easy access to the Liver. It provides a fertile platform in which Metastases can establish, not only because of its rich, dual blood supply but also because of humoral factors that promote cell growth. Metastasis is the most common neoplasm in[..]

DRPLA (Dentatorubropallidoluysian Atrophy) is a Rare Neurodegenerative Disorder that usually is inherited in an Autosomal Dominant pattern. The Clinical symptoms are variable depending on the age of onset of the disease Myoclonus, Epilepsy, and Mental Retardation are the main symptoms in Juvenile Onset, whereas Cerebellar Ataxia, Choreoathetosis, and Dementia are seen in Adult Onset. Neuropathologically, a combined degeneration of the Dentatorubral and Pallidoluysian systems is a characteristic feature of DRPLA. The disease is caused by an expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding PolyQ (Polyglutamine) in the Atrophin-1 gene, on Chromosome 12 (Ref.1).Atrophin-1, the DRPLA gene product, encodes a Hydrophilic 1184-amino acid protein with several simple repetitive[..]

C. neoformans (Cryptococcus neoformans) is a Basidiomycetous fungus and a significant human pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its importance as an opportunistic pathogen has increased in the past two decades, largely as a result of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), cancer chemotherapy and immuno-suppression for organ transplants. Infections begin in the lung following inhalation of small, dessicated yeast cells or spores, both of which are small enough to fit into the alveoli of the lung. The organism then spreads via the blood to other organs, especially the CNS (Central Nervous System). Survival in the CNS is enhanced by the presence of abundant neurotransmitters that are scavenged as the diphenolic precursors to synthesize the virulence factor Melanin[..]

U. maydis (Ustilago maydis) is a ubiquitous pathogen of corn. Pathogenesis, dimorphic growth and sexual development are intricately interconnected in the corn Smut fungus U. maydis, and the perception of signals from the host plant plays an important role in these processes. The life cycle of U. maydis is characterized by a dimorphic switch between a haploid yeast-like cell form, known as sporidia, and an infectious filamentous dikaryon (Ref.1). Mating in U. maydis is regulated by two signaling systems; cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) Signaling and MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) Cascade (also known as the Pheromone Response Pathway). The cAMP Signaling and MAPK Cascade are crucial for the sexual development and virulence of U. maydis. Sexual[..]

cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate) signaling regulates appressorium formation in the Rice Blast fungus M. grisea (Magnaporthe grisea). Both saprophytic and pathogenic growth of M. grisea is regulated by AC (Adenylate Cyclase)/Mac1 but different effectors of cAMP mediate downstream effects specific for either cell morphogenesis or pathogenesis. M. grisea causes a devasting fungal disease of rice plants known as Rice Blast through appressorium (or infection tube) formation. cAMP mediates its effect on appressorium formation through PKA (Protein Kinase-A). A well-characterized intracellular target of cAMP in eukaryotic cells is the Regulatory subunit of PKA (Ref.1). The cAMP signaling which is required for growth and pathogenesis in M. grisea diverges at the[..]

Atherosclerosis, the pathological basis of CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) and Ischemic Stroke, is the commonest cause of death and disability in the western world. Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial, highly complex disease with numerous aetiologies simultaneously and sequentially collaborating in subtle ways to affect lesion development, progression and maturation to an advanced, disease-provoking entity (Ref.1). The lesion, or Atheroma, is an inflammatory site composed of a necrotic lipid-rich core, modified vascular endothelium, SMCs (Smooth Muscle Cells), foamy macrophages, lymphocytes and a variety of inflammatory mediators. Inflammation is the key event in Atherosclerotic Plaque fissuring and rupture, causing adverse clinical events. A variety of risk factors are[..]

JAs (Jasmonates) are potent Lipid Regulators of Defense gene expression and act in development where they are necessary for fertility. The Jasmonate Pathway performs critical roles in Plant Defense, Development, and Metabolism, and it has received its name from MJ (Methyl Jasmonate), a fragrance from scented Jasmine flowers long used in the perfume industry. JA is derived from the Unsaturated Fatty Acid LA (Linolenic Acid) (18:3), an Octadecanoid that is highly abundant in membranes of Higher Plants. Apparently JAs can also be biosynthesized from Hexadecatrienoic Acid (16:3) in many plants, including Arabidopsis. A Phospholipase-A, DAD1 (Defective Anther Dehiscence-1) is responsible for release of LA from membrane lipids. DAD1 has an N-terminal Chloroplast transit[..]

The fission yeast S. pombe (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is homothallic and has a defined sexual cycle involving mating between haploid cells of opposite mating types. In S. pombe, two signaling pathways coordinately regulate mating; the pheromone-activated MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling and nutrient-regulated, G-protein-cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate)-PKA (cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase) pathway (Ref.1). In S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), these two signaling pathways have evolved cell type specificity, so that one functions in response to pheromone during Mating and both function to detect nutrients in diploid cells for Filamentous Growth. In contrast, in S. pombe, these two pathways function coordinately in the same cell type to[..]

The ascomycete N. crassa (Neurospora crassa) has defined asexual and sexual cycles. N. crassa is heterothallic and has two mating types, A and a. Under nutrient-rich conditions like Carbon, etc, N. crassa proliferates by the extension and branching of multinucleate vegetative hyphal cells to form a multicellular mycelium (Ref.1). In response to nutrient deprivation, desiccation and light, N. crassa initiates asexual conidiation. The major determinants regulating the onset of conidiation are the availability of Carbon source and light. The sexual cycle initiates in response to Nitrogen starvation. Heterotrimeric G-proteins play a critical role in regulating growth and differentiation in the filamentous fungi N. crassa. Filamentation, conidiation, morphogenesis, mating[..]

All cells need to interpret their environment. Efficient processing of signals from the extracellular milieu is achieved through dynamic signal-transduction systems. The components of this system that come into contact first with external signals are cell-surface receptors. RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) comprise one large group of receptors that respond to polypeptide growth factors and have intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. On ligand binding, receptor signaling is activated. The activation of RTKs initiates signal transduction and receptor endocytosis. Most activated RTKs are efficiently cleared from the cell surface by endocytosis and sorted to Lysosomes for degradation. In contrast, inactive RTKs are constitutively internalized and recycled back to the cell[..]

Displaying 121 to 132 (of 500 pathways)


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