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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 145 to 156 (of 533 pathways)

NO (Nitric Oxide) is a short-lived free radical gas involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes. It is produced along with L-Citrulline by the oxidation of L-Arginine and catalyzed by three different isoforms of NOS (NO Synthase). Type-I nNOS (neuronal NOS) and Type-III eNOS (endothelial NOS) are constitutively expressed as latent enzymes and require a higher concentration of Ca2+ for the enzyme activity. In contrast, Type-II iNOS (inducible NOS) is Ca2+ independent because it’s high affinity for Ca2+/Calm (Calmodulin) renders the enzyme active even at basal levels of intracellular Ca2+ . The catalysis of this reaction requires a number of essential cofactors such as mononucleotide, FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide), and NADPH (Nicotinamide Adenine[..]

Simple eukaryotes such as yeasts and molds encode multiple PAKs (p21-Activated Kinases) that, like their orthologs in other systems, act downstream of Rho-family GTPases. All PAKs contain an N-terminal PBD (p21 GTPase-Binding-Domain), which confers binding to small GTPases such as CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle-42) or Rac, and a C-terminal protein kinase domain, but they do not bind to Rho, Ras, or other small G-proteins. CDC42 and Rac bind in a GTP-dependent fashion to a highly conserved sequence, referred to as the CRIB (CDC42 and Rac Interactive Binding) domain, found in the N-terminal regulatory domains of all characterized PAKs (Ref.1).The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes two PAK kinases–Pak1/Shk1 and Pak2/Shk2–both of which, like their[..]

Axon regeneration is arrested in the injured CNS (Central Nervous System) by axon growth-inhibitory ligands expressed in oligodendrocytes/myelin and reactive astrocytes in the lesion and by fibroblasts in scar tissue. Growth cone receptors bind inhibitory ligands, activating a Rho-family GTPase intracellular signaling pathway that disrupts the actin cytoskeleton inducing growth cone collapse/repulsion. The known inhibitory ligands include Eph (Ephrins) expressed on astrocyte/fibroblast membranes; the myelin/oligodendrocyte-derived growth inhibitors Nogo, MAG (Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein), and OMGP (Oligodendrocyte Myelin Glycoprotein); and membrane-bound Sema (Semaphorins) produced by meningeal fibroblasts invading the scar (Ref.1).Myelin-associated inhibitory[..]

As an axon grows, the growth cone at its advancing edge encounters specific ‘choice points’ at which guidance cues steer specific axons towards their appropriate destinations. Such cues may attract a subset of axons towards a given domain, repel axons from inappropriate target regions or simply provide a permissive substrate for axonal outgrowth. There are many different ways in which a guidance signal might intervene to steer the growth cone. For example, a guidance cue might promote the initiation, extension, stabilization, or retraction of individual filopodia, or the capture or stabilization of microtubules in specific regions of the growth cone. In each of these cases, guidance signals must be relayed through the growth cone to the actin cytoskeleton,[..]

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading bacterial cause of death worldwide. The causative agent for causing TB is Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for causing 8.8 million new cases of active disease and 1.6 million deaths per year.  The first step in TB infection takes place with the internalization of the bacilli by alveolar macrophage followed by inhalation of droplets. Macrophages are phagocytic cells and acts as the first line of defense against microbial invasion. Since macrophages in the alveoli are the first cells to be exposed to the Mycobacterium they get infected first. Activation of macrophages leads to the production of several antimicrobial molecules involved in combating intracellular mycobacterial infection including ROS and[..]

BRs (Brassinosteroids) are Plant Steroid Hormones that influence a wide range of important Developmental and Physiological processes, including Regulation of Gene Expression, Cell Division and Expansion, Differentiation, Programmed Cell Death, and Homeostasis. The regulation of these processes by BRs, acting together with other plant hormones, leads to the promotion of Stem Elongation and Pollen tube Growth, Leaf Bending and Epinasty, Root Growth Inhibition, Proton-Pump Activation, and Xylem Differentiation. The pathways of BR biosynthesis have been elucidated by a series of detailed biochemical studies. The biosynthetic pathway to BL (Brassinolide), the biologically most active BR, can be divided into General Sterol Synthesis (Cycloartenol to Campesterol), and the[..]

Plant growth and development are ruled by environmental and endogenous signals, which are integrated through genetic networks that finally act on the division, expansion, and differentiation of cells to generate specific developmental patterns. BRs (Brassinosteroids) are steroid hormones belonging to the group of endogenous signals required for plant growth and organogenesis, controlling processes such as Cell Expansion, Vascular Differentiation, Etiolation and Reproductive Development. In addition to a role in Plant growth and development, BR has been also implicated in the modulation of Plant Stress Responses, including Enhancement of Chilling, Thermo, Salt-tolerance and Protection of Plant from the Mild Drought Injury and Pathogen Attack. Plants those are[..]

Phagocytosis, defined as the cellular uptake of particulates (>0.5 m) within a plasma-membrane envelope, is closely related to and partly overlaps the endocytosis of soluble ligands by fluid-phase macropinocytic and receptor pathways. The uptake of exogenous particles (heterophagy) has features in common with autophagy, an endogenous process of sequestration and lysosomal disposal of damaged intracellular organelles. There is a spectrum of uptake mechanisms depending on the particle size, multiplicity of receptor-ligand interactions, and involvement of the cytoskeleton. Once internalized, the phagosome vacuole can fuse selectively with primary lysosomes or the product of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex, to form a secondary phagolysosome. This pathway[..]

Steroid hormones are crucial substances for the proper functioning of the body. They mediate a wide variety of vital physiological functions ranging from anti-inflammatory agents to regulating events during pregnancy. Typically, endocrinologists classify steroid hormones into five major groups, based primarily on the receptor to which they bind, and the physiological outcomes: (i)Glucocorticoids: Anti-Stress Hormones which include cortisol, (ii)Mineralocorticoids: major Ion Uptake Regulators which include aldosterones, (iii)Androgens: Primarily male Sex Hormones such as Androstenedione and Testosterone, (iv)Estrogens: Female Sex Hormones including Estrodiol and Estrone and (v)Progestogens: progestational hormones, such as Progesterone. The steroid hormones are[..]

Somatostatin is a widely distributed peptide hormone that plays an important inhibitory role in several biological processes, including neurotransmission, exocrine and endocrine secretions, and cell proliferation (Ref.1). Somatostatin acts via a family of five GPCRs (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) SSTR1-SSTR5 (Somatostatin Receptors) that are variably expressed throughout numerous tissues ranging from the CNS (Central Nervous System) to the Endocrine and Immune Systems. Somatostatin antiproliferative action results either from inhibition of trophic or growth factors secretion or from interference with the normal Cell Cycle Progression. Among the five Somatostatin receptors, SSTR2 (Somatostatin Receptor-2) plays a critical role in the negative control of normal and Tumor[..]

Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, is the major cause of morbidity and mortality from CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in much of the world’s population. The disease involves the formation of Plaques in arterial walls that narrow the arterial passage, restricting blood flow and increasing the risk of occlusion of blood flow by a myocardial infarction. There is now a consensus that Atherosclerosis represents a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in the vascular wall. The Oxidative Modification hypothesis predicts LDL (Low-Density Lipoproteins) oxidation as an early event in Atherosclerosis, and oxidized LDL as one of the important contributors of Atherogenesis (Ref.1, 2 &[..]

The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of Tumors. Malignant Liver Tumors fall into two types: Primary and Metastatic. While Primary Liver tumors such as HCC (Hepatocellular Carcinoma) originate in the liver itself, Metastatic or Secondary Liver Tumors commpnly known as “Liver Metastases” are cancerous tumors that originate at sites remote from the liver and spread to the liver via the bloodstream. As filtration of blood is one of the main functions of Liver, cancer cells from other parts of the body have easy access to the Liver. It provides a fertile platform in which Metastases can establish, not only because of its rich, dual blood supply but also because of humoral factors that promote cell growth. Metastasis is the most common neoplasm in[..]

Displaying 145 to 156 (of 533 pathways)


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