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Signaling Pathways

Displaying 325 to 336 (of 537 pathways)

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with the capacity to induce apoptosis. It is enriched in the tumor microenvironment, promotes tumor growth and subverts innate immune responses to cancer cells. TNF is the best studied member of the TNF superfamily. TNF-alpha can bind to two related receptors, TNF receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1 and TNFR2), which are also used by other, similar ligands. By binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2, TNF activates distinct signaling pathways important for cell proliferation, cell death and immune responses (Ref.1 and 2). TNFR1 is constitutively expressed in most cell types, whereas TNFR2 is typically restricted to certain subpopulations of immune cells such as CD4+ or CD8+ T cells and a few other cell types such as oligodendrocytes[..]

CDKs (Cyclin-dependent kinases) are a group of serine/threonine protein kinases activated by binding to a regulatory subunit cyclin.CDK5(Cyclin dependent kinase-5), a family member of the cyclin-dependent kinases, plays a pivotal role in the central nervous system. During embryogenesis, CDK5 is indispensable for brain development and, in the adult brain, it is essential for numerous neuronal processes, including higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory formation. However, CDK5 activity becomes deregulated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, which leads to neurotoxicity. Therefore, precise control over CDK5 activity is essential for its physiological functions. For its activation[..]

The process of consolidating a new memory and the dynamic complexity of information processing within neuronal networks is greatly increased by activity-dependent changes in gene expression within individual neurons. A leading paradigm of such regulation is the activation of the nuclear transcription factor CREB (cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein), and its family members the ATF (Activating Transcription Factor) and CREM (cAMP Response Element Modulator), which belong to bZIP (basic/leucine zipper) class of transcription factors that functions in vivo to regulate the proliferation of pituitary cells and thymocytes. Proteins belonging to this class are characterized by the ability to bind to the consensus sequence TGACGTCA (Ref.1, 2 & 3) and contain a leucine[..]

FcεRI is constitutively expressed on mast cells as a tetrameric receptor composed of the IgE-binding α chain, the membrane-tetraspanning β chain, and the disulfide-linked homodimer of the γ chains. The level of expression of the FcεRI on the mast cell surface can be influenced by several factors, such as IgE availability or IgE binding. Antigen (Ag) ligation of IgE-bound FcεRI initiates phosphorylation cascades that cause profound morphological and transcriptional modifications. As FcεRI lacks intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, its activation requires the downstream phosphorylation of several Src kinases (LYN, SYK, and FYN) (Ref.1).Allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food and drug allergies, which in some cases can lead[..]

Neutrophils play an important role in the host defense by invading microbial pathogens. Upon infection neutrophils become activated through interaction with chemo attractants and cytokines. These ligands bind to a variety of cell surface receptors, including heterotrimeric GPCR (G-Protein Coupled Receptors) for fMLP (N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe) and PAF (Platelet Activating Factor), and tyrosine kinase-associated receptors for GMCSF (Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor). Receptor activation triggers intracellular signal transduction pathways, resulting in the correct biological response, for instance, migration, phagocytosis, antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, degranulation, superoxide production, transcriptional activation, and actin[..]

GSK3 (Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3) is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase found in all eukaryotes. Identified originally as a regulator of glycogen metabolism, GSK3 acts as a downstream regulatory switch for numerous signaling pathways, including cellular responses to WNT, Growth Factors, Insulin, RTK (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases), Hedgehog pathways, and GPCR (G-Protein-Coupled Receptors) and is involved in a wide range of signal transduction cascades involving cellular processes, ranging from glycogen metabolism, cell development, gene transcription, protein translation to cytoskeletal organization, cell cycle regulation, proliferation and apoptosis. Unlike most protein kinases involved in signaling, GSK3 is active in unstimulated,[..]

Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes, such as ovulation, embryogenesis, wound repair, inflammation, malignant tumor growth, retinopathies, rheumatoid arthritis, and angiogenesis-dependent diseases. One of the best-characterized modulators of angiogenesis is the heparin-binding FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor) (Ref. 1).FGFs are a large family of multifunctional peptide growth factors of which there are at least 28 distinct members. The members of this peptide growth factor family have been identified in a variety of organisms and play pivotal roles in many cellular processes including mitogenesis, differentiation, migration, and cell survival During embryonic development, FGFs play a critical role[..]

Controlled cell proliferation is a predominant theme in normal embryonic and post-embryonic development, and, in many instances, cell-type specification and cell proliferation are intimately coupled. Several secreted intercellular signaling proteins that behave as morphogens during pattern formation are also implicated in the regulation of the cell cycle. Hedgehogs (Hhs) are one such class of morphogens that regulate an enormous variety of developmental events in the fly and vertebrate embryo and plays a central role in several cancers.The vertebrate Hh family is represented by at least three members: Dhh (Desert Hh), Ihh (Indian Hh) and Shh (Sonic Hh), two Patched homologs, Ptc1 (Patched-1) and Ptc2 (Patched-2); and three homologs of Ci (Cubitus interruptus, a 155 kDa[..]

AHR is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, binding and becoming activated by sterically planar ligands approximately three benzene rings in size. It is maximally expressed in interface tissues including the liver, lungs, skin and gastrointestinal tract [Ref.1]. It is recognized as the culprit for most toxic responses observed after exposure to PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), Dioxins (e.g. TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)), and PCBs(Polychlorinated Biphenyls),3MC,β-NF and B[a]P. It is also activated by FICZ, which is formed upon absorption of UVB by TRP (tryptophan) and results in dissociation of PP60 from the complex [2&3]. AHR can affect cellular signaling through interactions with various Regulatory and Signaling[..]

To thwart viral infection, our cells have developed a formidable and integrated defense network that comprise of innate and adaptive immune responses. In an attempt to prevent viral replication, viral dissemination or persistent viral infection of the cell, many of these protective measures actually involve the induction of programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Once the virus has invaded the cell, a host defense-mediated response is triggered which involves the induction of a family of pleiotropic cytokines known as the IFNs (Interferons) (Ref.1). These IFNs constitute a heterogeneous group of proteins and are best known for their ability to induce cellular resistance to virus infection. However, IFNs also affect many other cellular functions, such as cell growth. IFNs[..]

AKT/PKB Pathway is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase Pathway involved in a wide variety of cellular functions, including proliferation, cell survival, differentiation, glucose mobilization, homeostasis, cell migration, and apoptosis. Three isoforms, AKT1,AKT2, and AKT3, are expressed in mammals (Ref.1 & 2). Akt is a central node in cell signaling downstream of growth factors, cytokines, and other cellular stimuli. Aberrant loss or gain of Akt activation underlies the pathophysiological properties of a variety of complex diseases, including type-2 diabetes and cancer (Ref.3). All three isoforms of Akt share a common structure of three domains. The N-terminus of the protein is a PH (Pleckstrin Homology) domain, which interacts with membrane lipid[..]

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein) belongs to a family of Kinases that have sequence homology to PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase).ATM is a key regulator of multiple signaling cascades which respond to DNA strand breaks induced by damaging agents IR (Ionizing Radiation), radiometric agents or by normal processes. These responses involve the activation of cell cycle CHK factors (Checkpoints factors), DNA repair and Apoptosis. Its downstream targets include CHK1 (Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase-1), CHK2 (Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase-2), tumor suppressors like p53 and BRCA (Breast Cancer), DNA repair factors like RAD50, RAD51, GADD45 (Growth Arrest and DNA-Damage-inducible), and other signaling molecules like c-ABL and NF-KappaB (Nuclear Factor-Kappa B) . In[..]

Displaying 325 to 336 (of 537 pathways)


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