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Pathways

Signaling Pathways

Displaying 37 to 48 (of 500 pathways)

The CD1 (Thymocyte Antigen CD1) antigen presentation system presents lipid and glycolipid antigens to effector T-Cells, which have diverse roles in Antimicrobial responses, Antitumor immunity and in regulating the balance between Tolerance and Autoimmunity. CD1, a conserved family of MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)-like glycoproteins in mammals, specializes in capturing lipid rather than peptide antigen for presentation to T-lymphocytes (Ref.1). The CD1 family consists of five isoforms of non-polymorphic lipid antigen-presenting molecules, which are classified into two groups: Group-I (CD1A, CD1B, CD1C, and CD1E) and Group-II (CD1D), based on similarities between nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Topologically, they resemble the classical peptide[..]

Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Economic development and urbanization have promoted habits of diet rich in saturated fat and diminished physical activity, which favors atherosclerosis. Traditionally two types of atherosclerosis are described, spontaneous and accelerated. Accelerated atherosclerosis mainly occurs in patients after heart transplant, CABG (coronary artery bypass graft), and PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) [Ref.1]. The normal artery contains three layers. The inner layer, the tunica intima, is lined by a monolayer of endothelial cells that is in contact[..]

ABA (Abscisic Acid) is a plant hormone that plays important role during many phases of the plant life cycle, including seed development and dormancy, embryo maturation, cell division and elongation, and in plant responses to various environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, cold, pathogen attack and UV radiation. However, despite the name, it does not appear to control Abscission directly; the presence of ABA in Abscising organs reflects its role in promoting senescence and/or stress responses, the processes preceding Abscission. ABA is a sesquiterpenoid (C15H20O4) with one asymmetric, optically active Carbon atom at C-1'f. The naturally occurring form is S-(+)-ABA; the side chain of ABA is by definition 2-cis,-4-trans. Trans, trans-ABA is biologically[..]

GAs (Gibberellic Acids or Gibberellins) form a large family of diterpenoid compounds, some of which are bioactive growth regulators, which control diverse developmental processes such as seed germination, stem elongation, leaf expansion, trichome development, and flower and fruit development. Gibberellins are classified on the basis of structure as well as function. All Gibberellins are derived from the ent-Gibberellane skeleton. The Gibberellins are named GA1.... GAn in order of discovery. GA3 (Gibberellin-3) is the first Gibberellin to be structurally characterized. There are currently 136 GAs identified from plants, fungi and bacteria. GAs are widespread and so far ubiquitous in both flowering (Angiosperms) and non-flowering (Gymnosperms) plants as well as ferns. GA[..]

GAs (Gibberellins) are members of a large family of Diterpenoid compounds, which are essential for a number of processes, including Gene Expression in Cereal Aleurones, Seed Germination, Elongation, Growth, and Flowering. During the last four decades, Barley Aleurone has been a valuable system for studying GA regulation of gene expression. After germination, GAs are released from the Embryo into the Endosperm, triggering the expression of a number of genes encoding Hydrolytic enzymes in Aleurone cells. Many of these Hydrolytic enzymes, which include Alpha-Amylase, Proteases, and Cell Wall–degrading enzymes, are secreted and are responsible for digestion of the stored reserves in the starchy endosperm. The Signal transduction events leading from the Receptor to the[..]

The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. The RNA polymerase moves stepwise along the DNA, unwinding the DNA helix just ahead of the active site for polymerization to expose a new region of the template strand for complementary base-pairing. In this way, the growing RNA chain is extended by one nucleotide at a time in the 5’-to-3’ direction. The substrates are nucleoside triphosphates (ATP, CTP, UTP, and GTP); as for DNA replication, a hydrolysis of high-energy bonds provides the energy needed to drive the reaction forward.[..]

The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. Each eukaryotic RNA Polymerase catalyzes transcription of genes encoding different classes of RNA. RNA Polymerase-II catalyzes transcription of all protein-coding genes; that is, it functions in production of mRNAs. RNA Polymerase-II also produces four snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs) that take part in RNA splicing.The eukaryotic polymerases do not directly recognize their core promoter sequences. The first step in complex formation at a promoter containing a TATA Box is binding of the factor[..]

The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. Each eukaryotic RNA Polymerase catalyzes transcription of genes encoding different classes of RNA. Transcription by RNA Polymerase-III produces small, stable RNAs including tRNAs, the 5S rRNA associated with the large ribosomal subunit, one of the snRNA (small nuclear RNAs) required for pre-mRNA splicing, and the 7S RNA associated with the signal recognition particle involved in secretion of proteins and the insertion of membrane-spanning proteins into cellular membranes. The func¬tions of[..]

During the final step in formation of a mature, functional mRNA, the introns are removed and exons are spliced together. The discovery that introns are removed during splicing came from electron microscopy of RNA-DNA hybrids between adenovirus DNA and the mRNA encoding hexon, a major virion capsid protein. For short transcription units, RNA splicing usually follows cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3’ end of the primary transcript. But for long transcription units containing multiple exons, splicing of exons in the nascent RNA usually begins before transcription of the gene is complete (Ref.1 & 2). The splicing snRNPs (Ribonucleoproteins) associate with the pre-mRNA and with each other in an ordered sequence to form the spliceosome. This large ribonucleoprotein[..]

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin found in all organisms that functions as a cofactor of Biotin-dependent carboxylases. It belongs to the B-Complex group of Vitamins and is an essential micronutrient for all mammals. The role of Biotin (or Vitamin-H) in Carboxylases is to act as vector for carboxyl-group transfer between donor and acceptor molecules during Carboxylation reaction (Ref.1). In M. musculus (Mus musculus), Biotin is a covalently bound as a prosthetic group in Biotin-dependent Carboxylases. It is covalently attached to Carboxylases by the action of Biotin-Protein Ligase. As a co-factor Biotin changes Apocarboxylases into active Holocarboxylases. For Biotin-Protein Ligase, Biotin addition occurs as an ATP-dependent, two-step reaction that, in the first step,[..]

Biotin is a water-soluble Vitamin required by all organisms by virtue of its essential role in carboxylation reactions. Whereas animals lack the ability to synthesize Biotin, it is synthesized by microorganisms and plants and therefore is widespread in the food supply at low concentrations relative to most water-soluble Vitamins (Ref.1). The highest level of Biotin occurs in organ meats such as liver and kidney, but it is low in meats, most vegetables, and fruits. It is also known as Vitamin-H. This member of Vitamin B-Complex group is colorless, withstands high temperatures and is orthorhombic when crystallized. It consists of two fused rings: an Imidazol (Ureido) and a Sulfur-containing (Tetrahydrothiophene) ring; and the latter is extended via a Valeric acid side[..]

Herpesviridae is a large family of viruses including several members that are pathogenic to humans, causing a variety of disorders ranging from cold sores and chicken pox to less frequent conditions such as blindness and cancers. HSV1 (Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1), the prototypical member of this family, is a large DNA-containing neurotropic virus endemic in all human populations. Following an initial infection in epithelial cells, the virus spreads to neurons of sensory ganglia, where it becomes latent. The virus emerges sporadically from latency, causing recurrent mucocutaneous lesions. Reactivation of the latent genomes upon stress can lead to re-infection of the epithelial tissue by anterograde spread or in immunosuppressed patients to life-threatening diseases[..]

Displaying 37 to 48 (of 500 pathways)
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