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Featured Pathways

Displaying 181 to 192 (of 825 pathways)

Featured Pathways

G-proteins (Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Proteins) are heterotrimeric proteins that mediate signal transduction between many membrane-bound receptors and intracellular effectors. Traditionally, activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins is accomplished exclusively by the action of GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors), Seven transmembrane-spanning proteins that typically reside in the Plasma[..]

Coagulation is a dynamic process which involves the regulated sequence of proteolytic activation of a series of zymogens to achieve appropriate and timely haemostasis in an injured vessel, in an environment that overwhelmingly favours an anticoagulant state [Ref.1 & 2]. There are two main mechanisms for triggering the blood clotting, termed as the contact pathway/intrinsic pathway and the tissue[..]

Thrombin/TFIIa (Activated Factor-II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the Coagulation cascade, the homeostatic process of greatest interest. It is a multifunctional serine proteinase best known for its ability to cleave Fibrinogen to Fibrin. Fibrin forms an essential component of the Blood Clot. When a blood vessel is injured, bleeding is stopped by clotting factors which[..]

Vitamin-C (Ascorbate or Ascorbic Acid) is an essential water-soluble Vitamin, well known for its antiscorbutic and antioxidant functions in humans. Vitamin-C was first identified by virtue of the essential role it plays in Collagen modification, preventing the nutritional deficiency Scurvy. Vitamin-C acts as a cofactor for the P4H (Prolyl[..]

Oxidative stress/Hypoxia is induced by a wide range of environmental factors including UV stress, pathogen invasion (hypersensitive reaction), oxygen shortage, etc. Generation of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) is characteristic feature of such stress conditions. Of the ROS, both Hydrogen Peroxide and Superoxide are produced in a number of cellular reactions and by various enzymes such as[..]

The intercellular Adherens Junctions (AJs) are specialized sub-apical structures that function as principle mediators of cell-cell adhesion. Their disassembly correlates with a loss of cell-cell contact and an acquisition of migratory potential. The Adherens Junctions have a crucial role both as sensors of extracellular stimuli and in regulating the dynamics of epithelial cell sheets or with[..]

Adhesion between neighboring epithelial cells is a crucial and tightly controlled process. The integrity of cell-cell contacts is essential for the regulation of electrolyte absorption and for the prevention of tumor metastasis. In polarized epithelia, specialized structures such as Adherens Junctions (AJs) and Tight Junctions (TJs) are responsible for the establishment of contacts between[..]

Gap Junction (GJ) channels span two plasma membranes and are formed by the alignment of two hemichannels, each consisting of an oligomer of structural subunit proteins, called Cxs (Connexins). These junctional proteins constitute a multigene family whose members are distinguished according to their predicted molecular weight in kilodaltons. A Connexin structure consists of two extracellular[..]

In an ever-changing environment, it is essential that organisms are able to sense these changes and to respond appropriately. Possible responses include alterations in gene expression and/or active movement towards or away from an environment. Most sensory pathways in eukaryotic organisms rely on serine, threonine or tyrosine protein kinases, whereas the most common sensory pathways in[..]

Flagella are hair like structures that help in locomotion of a cell or micro-organism. In gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli (E.coli), flagella are an important system of protein transport besides being involved in the movement. Flagella can be present all over the surface, at one end or at both ends of the bacterium. Normally a flagellum consists of a long filament[..]

During the course of transcription, the initial RNA product synthesized by RNA POL-II (RNA Polymerase-II), called a Primary transcript undergoes several processing steps including Capping, Splicing and Polyadenylation, before a functional mRNA (messenger RNA) is produced. RNA Polymerase initiates transcription at the first nucleotide of the first exon of a gene. Shortly after transcription[..]

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that converts information contained in mRNA into amino acid sequence. tRNA synthesis involves several steps, including initial transcript synthesis, tRNA precursors maturation and amino acid mediated charging of tRNA molecules. Maturation and charging of tRNA occurs both in cytoplasm as well as nucleus. In all organisms, tRNAs are[..]

Displaying 181 to 192 (of 825 pathways)


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