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Featured Pathways

Displaying 181 to 192 (of 812 pathways)

Featured Pathways

Polyamines are vital for the growth and function of normal cells. The complexity of polyamine metabolism and the multitude of compensatory mechanisms that are invoked to maintain polyamine homoeostasis argue that these amines are critical to cell survival. The regulation of polyamine content within cells occurs at several levels, including transcription and translation (Ref.1). The amino-acid[..]

rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) is the central component of the Ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. The synthesis of new ribosomes begins during transcription of the rRNA which is tightly regulated to maintain the right number of ribosomes. In eukaryotes, : ribosomal proteins are synthesized in the cytosol whereas transcription, processing of rRNA, and the assembly of[..]

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by the selective degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, the large nerve cells connecting the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to muscles, which control muscle movement. The loss of motor neurons leads to progressive atrophy of[..]

The translocation of proteins from one compartment to another is an essential feature of cellular life. The proper functioning of extracytoplasmic proteins requires their export to, and productive folding in, the correct cellular compartment.  Gram-negative bacteria secrete a wide range of proteins whose functions include biogenesis of organelles, such as Pili and flagella; nutrient[..]

Chloroplasts are exceptionally complex organelles found ubiquitously in Plant and Algal cells. Chloroplasts contain at least six suborganellar compartments: Outer and Inner membranes, Intermembrane Space, Stroma, and Thylakoid membrane and Lumen, all of which require specific trafficking systems. The Thylakoid membrane of the Chloroplast accounts for the bulk of[..]

Chloroplasts represent a diverse group of essential organelles collectively as the plastids. Plastids are a heterogeneous family of organelles found ubiquitously in plant and algal cells. Chloroplasts perform a variety of biochemical functions within plant cells. They contain the green pigment chlorophyll and are responsible for the light-harvesting and carbon-fixation reactions of[..]

Erectile Dysfunction commonly known as ED or Impotence, affects a large segment of the male population that results in impaired relaxation of the smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum and in the penile arteries. It is an age-related problem that is increasingly common in men aged over 40 years. In the past, ED was often assumed to be either a psychological problem or a normal part of the[..]

Cholera is one of the most severe diarrheal diseases that affect humans and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality especially among children in developing countries. It is characterized by numerous, voluminous watery stools, often accompanied by vomiting, and resulting in hypovolemic shock and acidosis. It is caused by certain members of the species Vibrio cholerae which can also[..]

Colorectal cancer represents a relatively well-characterized tumorigenesis paradigm and colorectal carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Colorectal cancer results from the accumulation of genetic alterations. Genomic instability creates a permissive state in which a potential cancer cell is allowed to acquire enough mutations to become a cancer cell. Several forms of[..]

Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the most enigmatic and aggressive malignant diseases. Neoplasms of the pancreas encompass a wide spectrum of benign and malignant tumors. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, the malignant neoplasm of the exocrine duct cells, accounts for more than ninety percent of all pancreatic tumors (Ref.1). Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma evolves from a progressive cascade of cellular,[..]

Gliomas are the most common intracranial malignant tumors in humans, and high-grade Gliomas in particular pose a unique challenge due to their propensity for proliferation and tissue invasion. The invasion of neoplastic cells into healthy brain tissue is a pathologic hallmark of Gliomas and contributes to the failure of current therapeutic modalities (surgery, radiation and chemotherapy).[..]

Sertoli-Germ (Spermatid)-cell interactions affect spermatogenesis at the molecular, cellular and biochemical levels. Germ cell movement within the epithelium is vital because germ cells, if induced to release into the tubule lumen prematurely, will be unable to fertilize the ovum. On the other hand, if germ cells are forced to remain attached to the seminiferous epithelium for a period of[..]

Displaying 181 to 192 (of 812 pathways)
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