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Pathways

Featured Pathways

Displaying 193 to 204 (of 812 pathways)

Featured Pathways

Colorectal tumors arise as a result of the mutational activation of oncogenes coupled with the mutational inactivation of tumor suppressor genes without a major role for gene amplification or rearrangement. These tumors affect the colon and rectum, and most colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps. The development of colorectal neoplasms is characterized by an ordered series of events[..]

Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are devastating as they are difficult to treat and may cause grave disability or death. CNS Gliomas pose particularly difficult problems because of their tendency toward malignancy, rate of tumor spread, and the lack of effective therapy. Gliomas are the most common intracranial malignant tumors in humans (Ref.1). In vertebrates, the embryonic[..]

In humans, roughly 300 million spermatozoa on average are ejaculated in the female reproductive tract, but only about one of every million actually enters the Fallopian tube. Upon entry, these spermatozoa apparently bind strongly to the oviductal epithelium in the isthmus, forming a sperm storage site.  Human spermatozoon formed in the testes via[..]

Teeth develop as ectodermal appendages in vertebrate embryos, and their early development resembles morphologically as well as molecularly other organs such as Hairs and Glands. Interactions between the Ectoderm and underlying Mesenchyme constitute a central mechanism regulating the morphogenesis of all these organs. Central features of Tooth morphogenesis are the formation of the[..]

The cell membranes do not simply serve as barriers to separate the inside of the cell from the outside or to delineate different intracellular compartments. These membranes also serve as a platform for cell signaling by allowing specific sets of proteins to interact. Phospholipids are major structural constituents of the cell membranes. In the cell membranes of neurons, the two most prevalent[..]

Cellular Lipid homeostasis in mammalian cells is regulated through the end-product feedback regulation of Lipid synthesis by a family of membrane-bound transcription factors designated SREBPs (Sterol Regulatory Element–Binding Proteins) that control the flux of cellular metabolites into the major Lipid pathways. The mammalian cell continuously adjusts its Sterol content by regulating levels of[..]

Amino acids are not only the building blocks of proteins, but also serve as precursors for other important plant metabolites and constitute an essential part of human and animal diets. The biosynthesis and degradation of the twenty standard Amino acids represent the complexity and ingenuity of metabolism at its most astounding. Plants are able to generate all 20 Amino acids necessary for[..]

Glycine and Serine are two non-essential amino acids in humans, which have important roles in the Central Nervous System. Serine, a constituent of brain proteins and nerve coverings, is important in various processes like dendritic outgrowth, formation of cell membranes, metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines, Myelin formation and muscle synthesis, synthesis of nucleotides and neuroactive amino[..]

Glycine and Serine are two non-essential neurotrophic amino acids that play an essential role in neuronal development and function in M. musculus (Mus musculus). They share similar neurotrophic effects in promoting neuronal survival and differentiation of sensory ganglia, hippocampal neurons, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. In M. musculus, interplay between Glycine[..]

Glycine and Serine are two interconvertible non-essential amino acids found abundantly in almost all cell types. They serve as active ligands for many metabolic pathways where they aid in the synthesis of other essential metabolites, such as Glycogen, Glyoxylate and Pyruvate, which are of immense importance for many cellular and biological processes. The metabolic pathway that correlates[..]

MI(Myocardial infarction ) causes the loss of cardiac tissue and scar formation, which ultimately lead to heart failure. According to the World Health Organization, heart failure initiated by MI and coronary artery disease accounts for 29% of deaths worldwide. However, human heart tissue does not regenerate spontaneously, thus “regenerative medicine” represents a promising alternative[..]

ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are Pluripotent cells capable of differentiating into any cell type of the body. Only three species of Mammals have yielded long-term cultures of self-renewing ESCs- Mice, Monkeys, and Humans. Human ESCs are derived from Blastocysts, multicellular structures originating from four cleavages of fertilized oocytes. Isolated from the ICM (Inner Cell Mass) of Blastocysts,[..]

Displaying 193 to 204 (of 812 pathways)
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