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Featured Pathways

Displaying 193 to 204 (of 825 pathways)

Featured Pathways

The process of DNA replication, gene transcription and protein translation combinedly known as central dogma of biology is mainly responsible for the expression and maintenance of every gene in an organism. Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Transcription can also be defined as a process that[..]

The amino-acid derived polyamines have long been associated with cell growth and cancer, and specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes regulate polyamine metabolism. Polyamines are organic cations that are derived from amino acids and occur in all organisms. Putrescine, Spermidine and Spermine are the main polyamines found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Polyamines are essential for the[..]

The Blood-Testes Barrier (abbreviated as BTB) acts as a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the testes. This barrier is formed by tight and adherens connections between the Sertoli cells, which are sustentacular cells (supporting cells) of the seminiferous tubules, and nourish the spermatogonia (Ref.1). In the testes, tight and adherens junctions are[..]

Cell adhesion and migration is the fundamental feature of multicellular organisms during defense mechanisms, where leukocytes play the central role. They bind bacteria, parasites, viruses, tumor cells etc. Furthermore, their interactions with the endothelium are of special importance. The migration of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) from the vascular system to sites of pathogenic exposure[..]

Polyamines are vital for the growth and function of normal cells. The complexity of polyamine metabolism and the multitude of compensatory mechanisms that are invoked to maintain polyamine homoeostasis argue that these amines are critical to cell survival. The regulation of polyamine content within cells occurs at several levels, including transcription and translation (Ref.1). The amino-acid[..]

rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) is the central component of the Ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. The synthesis of new ribosomes begins during transcription of the rRNA which is tightly regulated to maintain the right number of ribosomes. In eukaryotes, : ribosomal proteins are synthesized in the cytosol whereas transcription, processing of rRNA, and the assembly of[..]

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by the selective degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, the large nerve cells connecting the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to muscles, which control muscle movement. The loss of motor neurons leads to progressive atrophy[..]

The translocation of proteins from one compartment to another is an essential feature of cellular life. The proper functioning of extracytoplasmic proteins requires their export to, and productive folding in, the correct cellular compartment.  Gram-negative bacteria secrete a wide range of proteins whose function includes biogenesis of organelles, such as Pili and flagella; nutrient[..]

Chloroplasts are exceptionally complex organelles found ubiquitously in Plant and Algal cells. Chloroplasts contain at least six suborganellar compartments: Outer and Inner membranes, Intermembrane Space, Stroma, and Thylakoid membrane and Lumen, all of which require specific trafficking systems. The Thylakoid membrane of the Chloroplast accounts for the bulk of[..]

Chloroplasts represent a diverse group of essential organelles collectively as the plastids. Plastids are a heterogeneous family of organelles found ubiquitously in plant and algal cells. Chloroplasts perform a variety of biochemical functions within plant cells. They contain the green pigment chlorophyll and are responsible for the light-harvesting and carbon-fixation reactions of[..]

Erectile Dysfunction commonly known as ED or Impotence, affects a large segment of the male population that results in impaired relaxation of the smooth muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum and in the penile arteries. It is an age-related problem that is increasingly common in men aged over 40 years. In the past, ED was often assumed to be either a psychological problem or a normal part of[..]

Cholera is one of the most severe diarrheal diseases that affect humans and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality especially among children in developing countries. It is characterized by numerous, voluminous watery stools, often accompanied by vomiting, and resulting in hypovolemic shock and acidosis. It is caused by certain members of the species Vibrio cholerae which can[..]

Displaying 193 to 204 (of 825 pathways)


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