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Displaying 205 to 216 (of 812 pathways)

Featured Pathways

ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are a population of Pluripotent, Self-renewing cells which can proliferate indefinitely and contribute to the formation of basically all cell types in vitro and in vivo. The study of mammalian ESCs, especially Mouse ESCs, has provided valuable insights into early embryogenesis in mammals. Mouse ES cells are derived mainly from the ICM (Inner Cell Mass) of the Mouse[..]

ESCs (Embryonic stem cells) are Pluripotent cells derived from the ICM (Inner Cell Mass) of Blastocyst-stage embryos. These cells have two distinctive properties: an unlimited capacity for Self-renewal and Pluripotency. The capability for Self-renewal and the Pluripotency of ESCs seem to be under the control of multiple transcriptional factors, most common among them[..]

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of producing virtually all cell types in our body. They are characterized by the ability to Self-renew and maintain Pluripotency. For proper developmental outcome, ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) must tightly regulate their differentiation status. Hundreds of genes have been identified, including several transcription factors, which have[..]

Cardiogenesis is the formation of new heart tissue from embryonic, postnatal, or adult multipotent cardiovascular progenitor cells. Cardiogenesis in vertebrate is a complex process, where various genetic and epigenetic factors play crucial role in driving the interaction between different structures and diverse cell types. Cardiomyocytes are the main cell type found in the heart that are[..]

In the life cycle of Plasmodium spp, Erythrocytic stage is very important involving four stages viz. Merozoite stage, ring stage, Trophozoite stage and Schizont stage. On being released from the hepatocytes, the Merozoites enter the bloodstream prior to infecting red blood cells. They use the Apicomplexan invasion organelles to recognize and enter the host erythrocyte. The parasite first[..]

As research into tumour immunology continues at an incredible pace, a considerable amount of work is aimed at exploring the mechanisms that underlie the immunological recognition and elimination of cancer and the downstream consequences of these processes. The capacity of the immune system for recognition is not limited solely to the classic models of self versus pathogen or self versus[..]

Cell-fate decisions are controlled typically by conserved receptors that interact with co-evolved ligands. Therefore, the lineage-specific differentiation of immature CD4+CD8+ T cells into CD4+ or CD8+ mature T cells is unusual in that it is regulated by clonally expressed, somatically generated T-cell receptors (TCRs) of unpredictable fine specificity. Each mature T cell generally retains[..]

MDSCs (Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells) are recently been recognized as critical mediators of tumor progression in numerous solid tumours through their inhibition of tumor-specific immune responses. These cells are increased in numerous pathologic conditions, including infections, inflammatory diseases, graft-versus-host disease, traumatic stress, and neoplastic diseases. MDSCs inhibit not only[..]

Immune cells in the tumour microenvironment not only fail to mount an effective anti-tumour immune response, but also interact intimately with the transformed cells to promote oncogenesis actively.  STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) proteins act as a mediator of cytokine receptor signaling. This protein plays a role in[..]

The immune system has three primary roles in the prevention of tumors. First, the immune system can protect the host from virus-induced tumors by eliminating or suppressing viral infections. Second, the timely elimination of pathogens and prompt resolution of inflammation can prevent the establishment of an inflammatory environment conducive to tumorigenesis. Third, the immune system can[..]

Cancer immunotherapy attempts to exploit the exquisite power and specificity of the immune system for the treatment of malignancy. Although cancer cells are less immunogenic than pathogens, the immune system is clearly capable of recognizing and eliminating tumour cells. However, tumors frequently interfere with the development and function of immune responses. Thus, the challenge for[..]

Tumour cells characteristically provides their own growth signals, and ignore growth-inhibitory signals, avoid cell death, replicate without limits, sustain angiogenesis, and invade tissues through basement membranes and capillary walls. Whereas cancer immunosurveillance predicts that the immune system can recognize precursors of cancer and, in most cases, destroy these precursors before they[..]

Displaying 205 to 216 (of 812 pathways)
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