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Featured Pathways

Displaying 169 to 180 (of 809 pathways)

Featured Pathways

Gap Junction (GJ) channels span two plasma membranes and are formed by the alignment of two hemichannels, each consisting of an oligomer of structural subunit proteins, called Cxs (Connexins). These junctional proteins constitute a multigene family whose members are distinguished according to their predicted molecular weight in kilodaltons. A Connexin structure consists of two extracellular[..]

In an ever-changing environment, it is essential that organisms are able to sense these changes and to respond appropriately. Possible responses include alterations in gene expression and/or active movement towards or away from an environment. Most sensory pathways in eukaryotic organisms rely on serine, threonine or tyrosine protein kinases, whereas the most common sensory pathways in[..]

E. coli (Escherichia coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals. They are necessary for the proper digestion of food and are a part of the intestinal flora. Its presence in groundwater is a common indicator of fecal contamination. Technically, the “coliform group” is defined to be all[..]

During the course of transcription, the initial RNA product synthesized by RNA POL-II (RNA Polymerase-II), called a Primary transcript undergoes several processing steps including Capping, Splicing and Polyadenylation, before a functional mRNA (messenger RNA) is produced. RNA Polymerase initiates transcription at the first nucleotide of the first exon of a gene. Shortly after transcription[..]

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that converts information contained in mRNA into amino acid sequence. tRNA synthesis involves several steps, including initial transcript synthesis, tRNA precursors maturation and amino acid mediated charging of tRNA molecules. Maturation and charging of tRNA occurs both in cytoplasm as well as nucleus. In all organisms, tRNAs are[..]

The process of DNA replication, gene transcription and protein translation combinedly known as central dogma of biology is mainly responsible for the expression and maintenance of every gene in an organism. Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Transcription can also be defined as a process that[..]

The amino-acid derived polyamines have long been associated with cell growth and cancer, and specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes regulate polyamine metabolism. Polyamines are organic cations that are derived from amino acids and occur in all organisms. Putrescine, Spermidine and Spermine are the main polyamines found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Polyamines are essential for the[..]

The Blood-Testes Barrier (abbreviated as BTB) acts as a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the testes. This barrier is formed by tight and adherens connections between the Sertoli cells, which are sustentacular cells (supporting cells) of the seminiferous tubules, and nourish the spermatogonia (Ref.1). In the testes, tight and adherens junctions are[..]

Cell adhesion and migration is the fundamental feature of multicellular organisms during defense mechanisms, where leukocytes play the central role. They bind bacteria, parasites, viruses, tumor cells etc. Furthermore, their interactions with the endothelium are of special importance. The migration of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) from the vascular system to sites of pathogenic exposure[..]

Polyamines are vital for the growth and function of normal cells. The complexity of polyamine metabolism and the multitude of compensatory mechanisms that are invoked to maintain polyamine homoeostasis argue that these amines are critical to cell survival. The regulation of polyamine content within cells occurs at several levels, including transcription and translation (Ref.1). The amino-acid[..]

rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) is the central component of the Ribosome, the protein manufacturing machinery of all living cells. The synthesis of new ribosomes begins during transcription of the rRNA which is tightly regulated to maintain the right number of ribosomes. In eukaryotes, : ribosomal proteins are synthesized in the cytosol whereas transcription, processing of rRNA, and the assembly of[..]

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by the selective degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, the large nerve cells connecting the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to muscles, which control muscle movement. The loss of motor neurons leads to progressive atrophy of[..]

Displaying 169 to 180 (of 809 pathways)


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