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Pathways

Featured Pathways

Displaying 169 to 180 (of 812 pathways)

Featured Pathways

Oxidative stress/Hypoxia is induced by a wide range of environmental factors including UV stress, pathogen invasion (hypersensitive reaction), oxygen shortage, etc. Generation of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) is characteristic feature of such stress conditions. Of the ROS, both Hydrogen Peroxide and Superoxide are produced in a number of cellular reactions and by various enzymes such as[..]

The intercellular Adherens Junctions (AJs) are specialized sub-apical structures that function as principle mediators of cell-cell adhesion. Their disassembly correlates with a loss of cell-cell contact and an acquisition of migratory potential. The Adherens Junctions have a crucial role both as sensors of extracellular stimuli and in regulating the dynamics of epithelial cell sheets or with[..]

Adhesion between neighboring epithelial cells is a crucial and tightly controlled process. The integrity of cell-cell contacts is essential for the regulation of electrolyte absorption and for the prevention of tumor metastasis. In polarized epithelia, specialized structures such as Adherens Junctions (AJs) and Tight Junctions (TJs) are responsible for the establishment of contacts between[..]

Gap Junction (GJ) channels span two plasma membranes and are formed by the alignment of two hemichannels, each consisting of an oligomer of structural subunit proteins, called Cxs (Connexins). These junctional proteins constitute a multigene family whose members are distinguished according to their predicted molecular weight in kilodaltons. A Connexin structure consists of two extracellular[..]

In an ever-changing environment, it is essential that organisms are able to sense these changes and to respond appropriately. Possible responses include alterations in gene expression and/or active movement towards or away from an environment. Most sensory pathways in eukaryotic organisms rely on serine, threonine or tyrosine protein kinases, whereas the most common sensory pathways in[..]

Flagella are hair like structures that help in locomotion of a cell or micro-organism. In gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli (E.coli), flagella are an important system of protein transport besides being involved in the movement. Flagella can be present all over the surface, at one end or at both ends of the bacterium. Normally a flagellum consists of a long filament[..]

During the course of transcription, the initial RNA product synthesized by RNA POL-II (RNA Polymerase-II), called a Primary transcript undergoes several processing steps including Capping, Splicing and Polyadenylation, before a functional mRNA (messenger RNA) is produced. RNA Polymerase initiates transcription at the first nucleotide of the first exon of a gene. Shortly after transcription[..]

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA chain (74-93 nucleotides) that converts information contained in mRNA into amino acid sequence. tRNA synthesis involves several steps, including initial transcript synthesis, tRNA precursors maturation and amino acid mediated charging of tRNA molecules. Maturation and charging of tRNA occurs both in cytoplasm as well as nucleus. In all organisms, tRNAs are[..]

The process of DNA replication, gene transcription and protein translation combinedly known as central dogma of biology is mainly responsible for the expression and maintenance of every gene in an organism. Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Transcription can also be defined as a process that[..]

The amino-acid derived polyamines have long been associated with cell growth and cancer, and specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes regulate polyamine metabolism. Polyamines are organic cations that are derived from amino acids and occur in all organisms. Putrescine, Spermidine and Spermine are the main polyamines found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Polyamines are essential for the[..]

The Blood-Testes Barrier (abbreviated as BTB) acts as a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the testes. This barrier is formed by tight and adherens connections between the Sertoli cells, which are sustentacular cells (supporting cells) of the seminiferous tubules, and nourish the spermatogonia (Ref.1). In the testes, tight and adherens junctions are[..]

Cell adhesion and migration is the fundamental feature of multicellular organisms during defense mechanisms, where leukocytes play the central role. They bind bacteria, parasites, viruses, tumor cells etc. Furthermore, their interactions with the endothelium are of special importance. The migration of leukocytes or WBCs (White Blood Cells) from the vascular system to sites of pathogenic exposure[..]

Displaying 169 to 180 (of 812 pathways)
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